Increased monocytes in the adult: causes
Elevated monocytes in the expanded analysis of blood: dangerous if such a deviation? This question is often asked by patients who pass blood test prophylactic or cause any disease. To understand the process of occurrence of monocytosis must know the functions of these cells, and what is their norm.
Functions of monocytes
Monocytes — leukocyte elements involved in the immune defense of the organism. These white cells have the following functions:
- immature monocytes are the most «capable» cells to phagocytosis, they seize and inactivate foreign agents in the blood, whether disease-causing microorganisms or protein fractions of toxic origin;
- removed from the inflammation the dead leucocytes;
- activates the synthesis of interferon;
- involved in clotting
- have anticancer effect.
Monocytes — a serious barrier to infection. If the eosinophils, lymphocytes and neutrophils when confronted with disease-causing agents are killed almost immediately, monocytes «enter the fray» repeatedly. This is particularly important in monocytic indicators in the blood.
Monocytes: norm and deviations
The rate of monocytes in the leukocyte formula of the blood is 1 – 8% in percentages of up to 0.8×109/l in quantitative/absolute (abs) indicator. If the content of monocytes does not reach the standards, it indicates a failure of the immune system and vulnerability of the organism to infection and inflammatory diseases. The monocytopenia observed in B12 deficiency and aplastic anemia, severe bone marrow failure, long flowing heavy purulent infections, General exhaustion and stress.
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An increase in the interest level of monocytes more than 9 – 10% of the adult almost always characterizes the disease. There is the concept of relative monocytosis, when a quantitative indicator remains in the normal range, and its percentage content increases. Such deviation is observed in the reduced number of neutrophils or lymphocytes, is not a serious diagnostic load. Attention is given absolute monocytosis — increase in the quantitative and percentages of monocytes.
The reasons for the increased level of monocytes when you should not be afraid of rejection
Non-hazardous monocytosis (increased gradually returning to normal on their own) observed:
- in the recovery period after infectious diseases — influenza, acute respiratory infections;
- in the initial phase of children’s infections — whooping cough, measles, scarlet fever, chicken pox;
- after surgery — appendectomy, gynecological surgery, etc.
The death of other types of immune cells under these conditions causes a compensatory reaction of the bone marrow and the production of new cells. Figures of those killed in the beginning of eosinophils and neutrophils normalized 2 – 3 day in the absence of complications, and the level of «long-lived» monocytes, respectively, increases. Monocytosis during recovery, a sign that the body cope with infection.
Serious causes of monocytosis
Persistent monocytosis, expressed in varying degrees, can be a symptom of the following diseases:
- a massive worm infestation;
- serious viral infections — mononucleosis, mumps;
- fungal — candidiasis;
- specific bacterial infections — syphilis, tuberculosis;
- rheumatic diseases of the joints and heart;
- enterocolitis — infectious diseases of the intestine;
- septic endocarditis;
- autoimmune disorders — lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis;
- hemorrhagic diathesis — thrombocytopenic purpura;
- hematological Oncology — Hodgkin’s disease, myeloid leukemia;
- malignant tumors of different localization.
The level of monocytes in pregnancy
Index of monocytes during pregnancy is undergoing some changes, but not beyond the norm for adults. The percentage of monocytes:
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- I term — average rate is 3.9%
- II trimester — 4,0;
- III trimester — 4,5.
Monocytes of pregnant women have a distinctive feature — they largely produce cytokines – substances with anti-inflammatory action. A slight increase of monocytes in the early months of pregnancy is a complex adaptive reaction of the immune system to a state of pregnancy. While monocytes are more aimed at the neutralization of bacterial microorganisms and antiviral protection while reducing. That is why the woman is pregnant should examine the blood for viral agents, especially Epstein-Barr (4 type of herpes).
Diagnostic data of monocytosis
Monocytosis is not considered as a separate indicator. The level of monocytes in combination with levels of other leukocyte items gives sufficient information about the pathogen, stage of disease, degree of immune protection and the effectiveness of treatment. Quite informative the following combinations:
- Monocytosis and lymphocytosis
Increased monocytes and other leukocyte cells are lymphocytes in viral diseases, respiratory disease, childhood infections. It is often fixed by reduction of neutrophils.
- Monocytosis and basophilia
Basophils — immune link in the rapid response. These cells are the first to rush to the pathological focus. Monocytosis and basophilia can occur due to prolonged use of hormonal methods. The combined increase in monocytes, basophils, lymphocytes and macrophages provokes the intensification of the inflammatory reaction and massive release of histamine.
- Montecitos and eosinophilia
This combination of indicators leukocyte formula — the result of an allergic reaction. Also observed in parasitic infection intestinal worms, chlamidia inflammation and attack the Mycoplasma. Typically, these diseases give removed from the lesion symptom — prolonged cough with painful seizures in the absence of clinical symptoms and pulmonary rales.
- Monocytosis and neutrophilia
This tandem indicates a bacterial infection. Always there has been a significant reduction in lymphocyte level in the blood. The characteristic clinical picture: high fever, purulent discharge from the nose, wet cough, wheezing and cat call after me auscultation.
Monocytosis is not an independent disease, it is only a symptom (and not very dangerous) of the pathological process in the body. Components of the leukocyte is able to replace each other to compensate for insufficient functions. In most cases (SARS, helminthiasis, etc.) deviations are not expressed independently and are eliminated after a full treatment of this disease within 1 to 2 weeks. On a serious pathology, including cancer, specify:
- abrupt changes in leukocyte indices, monocytes, inclusive;
- long-time deviations.
In this case, conducted additional lab tests to determine the exact causes of disorders of the blood. Treatment tactics is elected in accordance with the identified disease, and control delivery of the detailed analysis of blood helps to monitor the healing process.