Intracranial pressure: symptoms and treatment in children

Many young mothers meet with such unpleasant symptom in infants, as high intracranial pressure. How is the human brain, and why is this indicator important?

The brain has multiple shells that are directly under the bones of the skull. Between two such shells the space is filled with special physiological cerebrospinal fluid or CSF. Liquor necessary for the proper functioning of the most important organ and to protect it from mechanical injury. Intracranial pressure doctors call the pressure exerted by CSF fluid on the brain. Increases in this index in neonates and older children can lead to serious complications.

When increased intracranial pressure in children dangerous?

High blood pressure liquor content in the brain is dangerous only if it is permanent. In the rule, this figure may increase in children in the following cases:

  • during breast-feeding (intensive process of sucking);
  • when lifting objects of great weight;
  • during the act of defecation;
  • during stressful situations;
  • with a strong cough.

Reasons

If your child has high blood pressure CSF fluid on the brain, it is necessary to have a reason. We list the most common diseases, one of the main symptoms of which is increased intracranial pressure:

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  • A tumor in brain tissue of benign or malignant nature. The tumor has a tendency to growth and compression of the brain tissue, sometimes causing terrible pain and hallucinations in humans.
  • Meningitis – inflammation of the meninges of the brain. The disease is able to cause strong swelling of the cerebrospinal fluid and to impede its discharge.
  • Encephalitis – inflammation of the brain bacterial origin that causes severe swelling of the meninges.
  • Hydrocephalus or violation of the process of origin of the CSF fluid. The main cause of the disease – congenital anomalies of cerebrospinal fluid moves in the skull.
  • Subdural hematoma.
  • Traumatic brain injury is almost always accompanied by infants accumulation of fluid inside the skull.
  • Hypoxia of the fetus in pregnancy and during childbirth can lead to increased intracranial pressure in the newborn.
  • Early fusion of the skull bones of the baby («soft spot»).
  • Hemorrhage inside the skull.
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    Signs of intracranial pressure

    Symptoms of increased pressure in the skull of the baby diverse and may be supplemented by an indication of underlying disease. Pediatricians divide the symptoms into two groups on the basis of age, in connection with the fusion of the top of the head in babies. After all, children from one year and older «spring» already overgrown and blocked access to the brain membranes. Signs in children under one year and infants:

    • nonstop crying;
    • irritability, nervousness;
    • unreasonable anxiety (baby is fed, dry, warm, but crying), manifesting itself in the second half of the day and night;
    • Внутричерепное давление: симптомы и лечение у детей

    • sleep problems (multiple night crying hard to sleep);
    • frequent regurgitation after eating, is more abundant than the other kids;
    • vomiting and nausea;
    • the head is visually increased, the frontal lobe is pushed forward, swelling of the fontanel.
    • the veins and blood vessels on the baby’s head clearly visible;
    • symptom Graefe or symptom of the setting sun (eyeballs the kid rolled down involuntarily);
    • the variances in the reflexes;
    • poor weight gain of the child, frequent failures from feeding (sucking increases the already increased intracranial pressure);
    • the development significantly behind their peers.

    Signs of increased intracranial pressure in year old child:

    • nausea;
    • vomiting, not bringing relief;
    • pain of the eye sockets (the kids rubbed his eyes; the older ones complain of pain in this area);
    • the emergence of «stars» before the eyes, razdvajanje image, etc.;
    • pain in the head, which bears an intensive character and worse at night;
    • the change of the ocular fundus;
    • poor sleep;
    • unreasonable tantrums, crying, screaming;
    • irritability.
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    Diagnosis

    Diagnosis of increased intracranial pressure includes a visit to the pediatrician, neurologist (you may notice an increase in the volume of the skull and bulging of the Fontanelle, disparity reflexes age), an ophthalmologist (a doctor will examine the eye fundus of the child) and the following surveys:

    • lumbar puncture (invasive, rarely used);
    • neurosonography (ultrasound of the brain of the baby) will reveal all the abnormalities of cerebrospinal fluid and moves excess fluid, increase of the cerebral ventricles;
    • A brain CT scan or MRI is prescribed in case of Rodnichok, the baby has already overgrown.

    Внутричерепное давление: симптомы и лечение у детей

    Treatment

    Treatment of increased intracranial pressure in children should begin with eliminating the root cause of this symptom. Additional treatment is as follows:

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    • receiving diuretics (Triampur, Diakarba);
    • the acceptance of nootropics (Pantogam, Cortexin, Kogitum);
    • medications that improve blood flow in the brain;
    • reception neuroprotective drugs (Glycine);
    • strict adherence to the mode of feeding the baby, sleep and rest;
    • regular long walks in the fresh air;
    • avoidance of stressful situations;
    • physical exercises of low intensity should have a place in the daily routine;
    • physiotherapy.

    In extreme cases (brain tumors, abnormal structure of the skull, etc.), a surgical intervention of various complexity (e.g., shunting in hydrocephalus – withdrawal of excess CSF fluid from the brain into the abdominal cavity of the baby).

    Possible complications

    In case of untimely treatment of increased intracranial pressure in children may develop the following life-threatening health complications:

    • epileptic seizures;
    • partial or complete loss of vision;
    • hemorrhagic stroke (bleeding);
    • ischemic stroke (death of the brain because of an interruption of its blood supply caused by the complete blockage of the artery);
    • loss of consciousness;
    • coma;
    • disturbed breathing (the child may need a ventilator);
    • loss of sensation of hands and feet, muscle atrophy, immobilization.