Iron deficiency anemia: causes, symptoms and treatment diet

One of the most common types of anemia is iron deficiency anemia (IDA). It is about 83% of all anemias and is found in every 5 people on the planet. Consider what is this pathology, what are its causes and basic treatment approaches.

What is iron deficiency anemia?

This disease is a clinical and hematological symptoms that develop in connection with the impaired production of hemoglobin due to iron deficiency. In addition, the disease is manifested in trophic disorders of organs and tissues.

How is iron metabolism?

Iron is a unique essential trace element that plays an important role in all cells. It participates in the processes of cellular respiration. In humans iron is distributed thus:

  • heme, or iron, which is part of hemoglobin is approximately 65 – 70%;
  • depot iron – 20%;
  • transport – 0,1%;
  • active iron – 12%.

The main function of iron is to transfer gases. Thus, the hemoglobin carries in tissue oxygen and makes it from carbon dioxide, and myoglobin involved in the processes of cellular respiration. This function becomes possible due to the fact that iron can oxidize and recover, becoming bivalent or trivalent, if necessary.

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Important! Changing the valency of iron vitamin C (ascorbic acid). It in most cases transforms the bivalent iron to trivalent. Therefore, in the treatment of IDA with iron supplementation prescribed vitamin C for best absorption.

How iron gets into the human body?

Iron is delivered to the person together with food. The different types of products contain this trace element in certain quantities. Iron stores (depot) is located in the liver and begins to be used only in extreme situations, such as during prolonged starvation or massive blood loss.

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Why a disease occurs

Causes of iron deficiency anemia can be divided into several groups:

1. Chronic bleeding. Even scant but regular bleeding can Deplete iron stores in the body. Sometimes patients may not notice some anomalies occurring in their body, and then it is manifested iron deficiency anaemia. What kind of bleeding question:

  • with abundant, prolonged menstruation in women;
  • hematuria in chronic kidney disease (overt or covert);
  • nosebleeds disease Rendu-Osler or chronic atrophic rhinitis;
  • patients on hemodialysis;
  • bleeding from hemorrhoids or varicose veins of the esophagus;
  • have regular donors of blood, etc.

2. Congenital deficiency of this substance.

3. Malabsorption of this element. Iron absorption occurs in the small intestine. If for some reason this ability is broken, then anemia. When this can happen:

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  • after the removal of the intestines;
  • in chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine;
  • in amyloidosis syndrome of malabsorbtion.

4. The increased demand for this microelement. For example, in children during active growth or in adults who are engaged in heavy physical exertion.

5. The lack of receipt of iron from food. Happens with vegetarianism or fasting.

6. Iron deficiency during pregnancy. Allocate a separate paragraph to the development of iron deficiency in pregnant women. In connection with the growing need of the body almost every second pregnant woman is diagnosed with anaemia of this type.
Железодефицитная анемия: причины, симптомы и лечение, диета

Varieties of iron-deficiency anemia

Classification of this pathology as follows:

1. On the cause: hemorrhagic, secondary, unspecified, juvenile, pregnant, etc.
2. According to the severity: mild, moderate and severe.
3. In stages:

  • 1 – the iron loss exceeds its intake;
  • 2 – the depletion of depot iron;
  • 3 – the development of mild anemia with the typical indicators of blood;
  • 4 – severe degree of anemia, the state of subcompensation, hemoglobin level less than 100 g/l;
  • 5 – severe anemia, hemoglobin level below 80 g/l, there comes oxygen starvation of tissues.
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Clinic and symptoms of the disease

Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia manifest two key syndromes:

1. Sideropenic:

  • breakage, dryness, irregular shape of the nails;
  • the hair is easy to fall and split ends;
  • the skin is dry, dense and not burn;
  • trouble swallowing, dry mouth;
  • perverted taste sensations;
  • red shiny tongue, cracks in the corners of the mouth;
  • atrophic processes in the nose;
  • pain and problems with the gastrointestinal tract.

Железодефицитная анемия: причины, симптомы и лечение, диета

2. Symptoms:

  • weakness, drowsiness, fatigue;
  • pale and greenish hue of the skin;
  • swelling of the lower extremities;
  • pain and heart murmur.

Blood picture the following:

  • Hemoglobin and red blood cells is reduced or within normal limits.
  • Other blood cells are normal.
  • Color index (relative content of hemoglobin in one erythrocyte) of 0.5 – 0.7.
  • Reduced level of serum iron.
  • Increased level of free transferrin.
  • Diagnosis

    Diagnosis is based on characteristic complaints and appearance of the patient, and confirm it with laboratory data. Additionally prescribe different types of tests to identify the cause of anemia and the source of the bleeding.

    Principles of therapy

    The treatment of the disease is in several areas:

    1. Elimination of the source of bleeding and iron deficiency. This patient is sent to a relevant specialist (with nosebleeds – to Laura with uterine – to the gynecologist, at the esophageal – surgery, etc.).

    2. Diet. What foods for iron deficiency anemia is recommended to eat: meat and offal (liver, tongue), buckwheat, apples (ascorbic acid). Food at anemia should be balanced and varied. Here is an example menu, in this disease for the day:

    • Breakfast: oatmeal with nuts and honey;
    • afternoon snack: apples baked with cottage cheese, herbal tea;
    • lunch: chicken soup, buckwheat porridge and meatballs veal, vegetable salad;
    • second snack: fruit salad;
    • dinner: boiled tongue, and a salad of leafy greens;
    • late dinner: a decoction of rose hips or chamomile tea.
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    Limit the amount of dairy and cereal products, as they reduce the absorption of iron and cause problems with the gastrointestinal tract.

    3. Iron preparations (Ferropleks, Paramid, ferrum Lek etc.). Apply a long time in the dose. Combine iron supplementation with vitamin C. About a month after the start of treatment is added a complex of b vitamins and folic acid.
    4. Treatment of folk remedies. Used as a Supplement to the basic treatment. Most often used decoctions and infusions of herbs (chamomile, rosehip, nettle, etc.). Treatment continued until normalization of blood counts. A tentative course of therapy is 3 to 4 months.

    Important! Large doses of iron reduces the body’s resistance to infections. During the disease should stop them for a while. Iron therapy must be under the supervision of a physician.

    How dangerous is this disease?

    IDA is unpleasant, but curable disease. If time does not pay attention to her signs in a child, it can cause a lag in the development of the baby. Severe IDA leads to oxygen starvation and disruption of all organs and tissues, which can cause disabling complications or lead to death.