Ischemia: what is it?
Ischemia — often this term is used in heart disease. However, this is only one aspect of the problem. On a par with myocardial ischemia often falls down and the brain. What changes occur during ischemia, and whether this dangerous condition — the answers to these questions can save the lives of many people.
Ischemia: the essence of the concept
Ischemia is an acute or chronic interruption of the blood supply in a certain area of the body. A pathological condition directly dependent on the functionality of blood vessels supplying a separate area of the body. Luminal narrowing or complete closure (obstruction) of the vessel leads to disruption of all metabolic processes in the damaged organ: there is insufficiency of nutrients and oxygen (hypoxia). These changes lead to temporary or permanent dysfunction of a body (depends on the speed of development of the pathology and degree of insufficiency of blood flow).
Only long-term oxygen starvation and malnutrition, and the rapid narrowing of the supply on vessels lead to irreversible changes in the tissues, their necrosis. Most sensitive to ischemia of the myocardium, Central nervous system (primarily the brain) and kidneys. It is in these organs rapidly develops persistent organic tissue damage, which greatly affects the quality of life of the patient and often faces a fatal outcome.
The development of ischemia is often the result of local or General pathological changes of blood vessels. Ischemia can occur for the following reasons:
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- old age is an irreversible extinction of the organism begins from the blood vessels;
- high a/d — inability of the vascular walls to relax hampers blood flow;
- atherosclerosis — the formation of vnutrismennyh deposits significantly narrow the lumen of blood vessels, especially arteriosclerosis of the large arteries (vertebral, carotid);
- diabetes — the blood vessels are one of the main targets in this disease;
- errors in nutrition and obesity — all that man eats, affects the state of its vessels;
- Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption is harmful habits cause local arterial spasm and irreversible changes in the vascular system, often leading to serious consequences;
- embolism and thrombosis — blood clots leading to the rapid development of ischemia and is often the cause of sudden death.
To ischemic changes in the tissues can result in blood loss, severe blood disorders and mechanical compression of the artery by tumor, a stone or an external factor.
Options for the development of ischemia
To predict the importance of the speed of development of insufficiency of blood supply to certain organ. The most dangerous acute ischemia with severe narrowing of blood vessels: symptoms develop rapidly, often cause irreversible consequences, and doctors do not have sufficient time to provide full assistance. Such options for ischemia include heart attack and stroke. Acute ischemia with minor circulatory insufficiency — the process is dynamic, but reversible.
The most favorable chronic ischemia. Doctors can detect the first signs at an early stage of circulatory failure, and drug or promptly to prevent deterioration of the patient. However, without proper treatment of chronic ischemia sooner or later lead to serious consequences.
Ischemia of the heart
Ischemia of the heart manifests itself in several clinical variants:
- Angina can occur due to a sudden spasm of the coronary vessels, and in the formation of intravascular plaques. Angina attacks chest pain, the frequency and intensity of which may eventually increase. On the background of the disease often occurs arrhythmia, severe manifestation of which atrial fibrillation is a serious health hazard and requires immediate medical care.
- Infarction — an acute disease, characterized by the severity of the symptoms and need immediate remedial measures. Necrosis of the myocardium caused the total circulation in a certain area of the heart muscle, even with timely treatment leaves a scar.
- Infarction — a common type of chronic myocardial ischemia. Nutritional deficiencies and long-term hypoxia lead to progressive death of myocytes, which are formed of connective-tissue inclusion. Progressive cardiosclerosis leads to shutdown of work of individual sections of the myocardium and hypertrophy of the functioning zones.
Cerebral ischemia depending on the causative factor can develop gradually or acutely. There is a wide variety of clinical symptoms: from minor headaches and loss of memory to convulsions and loss of consciousness. Variants of the course of cerebral ischemia:
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- Chronic ischemia of the brain develops gradually affects the General state of the organism (increased fatigue, decreased performance, poor memory, decrease in learning ability, headaches). Possible mental disorders, the development of dementia.
- Ischemic attack transient acute violation of cerebral circulation. People noted a specific tactile sensation (tingling in the body, numbness in one side of the body and muscle weakness), blurred vision, speech abilities (up to aphasia) and hearing. The neurological manifestations depend on the localization of the ischemic region. Ischemic attack (mini-stroke) is accompanied by severe headache, possible temporary disorientation and memory loss. Similar symptoms are observed no more than 24 hours and gradually regress, during this time, there is no necrosis of brain cells. Transient ischemia is a serious reason to take care of their own health. 20% of people experiencing coronary attack, a stroke develops within a month. The risk of acute cerebral circulatory disorders (ischemic stroke) is 50% within the first year after initial attack of brain ischemia.
- Stroke by prolonged ischemia — in recent years, is diagnosed not just older people, but also among active young people. Moreover, in young patients with ischemic stroke occurs most heavily, causing extensive necrosis of the nervous tissue of the brain. Such statistics caused widespread addictions and the lack of rules of healthy nutrition.
Ischemia is a serious disorder that, without timely and comprehensive treatment poses a serious threat to life. Every man should know, what is ischemia, what are the first signs and methods of treatment. Ischemia is easier to eliminate at the initial stage, when a damaged organ has not yet occurred irreversible changes (necrosis). Necrotic tissue (while maintaining the life of the patient) are replaced by scar inclusions, which subsequently cause lasting dysfunction of the affected organ.