Ischemic stroke: what is it?
Ischemic stroke (AI) is one of the most common causes of death among the entire population of the globe. The problem of stroke is compounded by the fact that in most cases don’t recognize him in time, and the patient is important for a few hours without medical help, which leads to irreversible consequences. Consider what constitutes the disease, and what treatment can offer modern medicine.
What is it?
AI (the second name – atherothrombotic stroke) is an acute stop of blood supply to the brain, which is accompanied by necrosis of tissues. Sometimes this disease is called cerebral infarction, but nothing to do with the well-known myocardial infarction, it does not.
There are the following types of stroke: ischemic and hemorrhagic. The reason the AI becomes a blockage of cerebral arteries by thrombus or embolus. A haemorrhagic form develops when the rupture of blood vessels due to pressure or the presence of congenital aneurysms of the blood vessels. Any stroke disturbed nutrition of the area of the brain that leads to severe complications or death. In practice, most often a stroke in ischemic type, which klassificeret on severity, localization of lesion volume and other characteristics.
Important! In addition to stroke, cerebral ischemic found stem stroke, which damaged his spinal cord, and violated its functions. This is a rare pathology, which is accompanied by motor and tactile disorders and dysfunction of the pelvic organs.
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Causes and contributing factors
There is no single established cause, which is developing a stroke. Experts identify a number of controlled and uncontrolled factors that increase the risk of developing this disease. Among them:
- Age. This type of stroke is more common in men after 45 – 50 years, although each year patients with this disease becoming younger and younger.
- Male. Proven that men suffer from stroke more often than women.
- Excess weight and sedentary lifestyle.
- Related diseases with metabolic disorders (diabetes, etc.).
- Genetic predisposition.
- The abuse of alcohol and tobacco.
- Long-term use of oral contraceptives etc.
Some of these factors cannot be influenced, while others are quite amenable to adjustment. If the patient has an increased risk of stroke, he is advised to pay close attention to their health, to lose weight and to normalize the power.
What is the disease?
Symptoms of ischemic stroke depend on its shape, area, and volume of brain lesions. The human brain consists of the following structures:
1. The cortex and hemisphere. Each share is performs certain functions:
- temporal lobe – responsible for auditory and olfactory analyzer;
- frontal – controls speech, thinking, memory;
- parietal – tactile and taste sensations;
- occipital – responsible for vision.
2. The cerebellum. Controls coordination of movements and gait. Stroke of the cerebellum leads to disruption of these functions.
3. Medulla – here are concentrated the centers of breathing and heartbeat.
Thus, the clinical manifestations of a stroke will depend on the affected area and the affected area. Sometimes it may be barely noticeable gait disturbance and speech, and in other cases, it may happen to virtually instantaneous death from respiratory arrest. In ischemic stroke the symptoms can be divided into two large groups:
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- disorders of consciousness: stupor, coma, swoon, torpor;
- sharp pain in the head;
- vomiting which does not bring relief;
- disorder of vegetative system: fever, sweating, tachycardia, etc.
Varieties of AI
There are the following subtypes of AI:
1. Acute AI. It is characterized by sudden onset and predominantly unilateral development of symptoms without loss of consciousness. In the acute phase develop symptoms such as:
- problems with speech, wrong pronunciation of individual words;
- loss of visual fields;
- weakness and sensitivity;
- impaired coordination and gait.
The differential diagnosis spend with a brain tumor, aneurysm, diabetic coma and heart disease.
2. Extensive AI. This affected a massive area of the brain that appears:
- sharp pain;
- loss of consciousness up to coma;
- problems with the vestibular apparatus;
- paralysis and paresis;
- impairment of vision, speech, hearing etc.
3. Lacunar (small) AI. Maybe not immediately manifest any symptoms and will be diagnosed by results of special examination methods (MRI, arteriography, etc.).
How to give first aid?
First aid for stroke lies in its timely diagnosis and delivery of the patient in specialized medical institution. How to recognize a stroke, written a lot of rules. The simplest of them:
- Ask the person to smile or pull the tongue. In stroke, the tongue deviates to the side and smile crooked and wrong.
- Pay attention to the speech. When the AI man cannot coherently and clearly to say the usual phrase.
- Offer to raise their hands. Disease hands will be raised at different levels.
The main thing is not to try to solve the problem yourself. Call the ambulance, then reassure the patient, if he is conscious, and wait until the arrival of the doctors to tell them what happened.
How is the treatment?
AI therapy is carried out only in hospital. If less than 4 – 5 hours from the beginning of the stroke, it can be applied thrombolytic therapy. The patient is given special drugs that dissolve blood clots. Thrombolysis is used not always and not in all patients. In the future, for treatment using various drugs aimed at restoring and improving cerebral blood flow. The standard treatment for AI involves the following activities:
The period of rehabilitation and recovery
After a patient has suffered a stroke, there is a period of rehabilitation. She is early and late. Early rehabilitation starts from day one. It includes:
- physiotherapy for the prevention of bedsores and recovery functions of the limbs;
- breathing exercises to prevent pneumonia;
- work with a speech therapist to restore speech skills;
- learning to walk with crutches and walkers.
Much work lies primarily on the shoulders of loved ones of people who, after discharge from the hospital to help patients recover further. In the late rehabilitation period (half a year) the patient continues to exercise, work with a speech therapist. He can be assigned to a courses of medicines that improve blood flow to the brain. A year later, when the opportunity allowed to visit a special hospital for the rehabilitation of patients with this disease.
Offers traditional medicine?
Treatment of folk remedies at home are used only in the period of rehabilitation and under the supervision of a physician. Treatment of folk remedies – is:
Forecast and consequences
Prognosis and complications of the disease depend on many factors: the volume of the lesion, comorbidity, timeliness of medical care. Massive stroke prognosis is poor. In other forms of full-scale rehabilitation of the patient.