Jaundice in neonates: causes and consequences, symptoms, treatment, photos
In some cases, a completely healthy mom there is a baby, which begins to rapidly yellowing directly «in front», in the first days of birth. Should we be afraid of this phenomenon? What are the reasons it can happen, and how dangerous such postnatal jaundice? Could it be a symptom of the disease?
What is jaundice, not necessary to tell anyone. Occurs yellowness whites of the eyes, then the skin appears dark urine and discoloured feces. Yellowing of the skin in adults always said about any disease. Most of isterichnost (jaundice) can result in viral and alcoholic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, gallstone disease, some blood diseases. And what are the reasons lead to the yellowing of the skin, eyes and dark urine in children that have just appeared?
The reasons for the development of isterichnost newborns
The phenomenon of jaundice in neonates always causes severe anxiety in parents. Meanwhile, almost always cause for excitement is no, because this change in color of the skin of the baby is the external manifestation of the adaptive mechanism to the new conditions of existence, mainly breathing. It is normal physiological jaundice. What factors lead to it?
The baby is almost a complete replacement of hemoglobin. Fetal (fetal) hemoglobin, worked perfectly when the placental circulation becomes after childbirth is no longer needed. So it is enhanced the decay.
Intelligent parents will ask: «why this does not happen with all babies, if this is a mandatory process»?
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The fact that the bilirubin from the blood is utilized in the liver to the liver cells – hepatocytes – secretively the bile. But transporting it to the liver is possible only in connection with the protein of plasma is one kind of albumin. And if the baby in a little blood albumin (protein deficiency), it may turn yellow. In addition, the liver itself can still «deal» with the processing of bilirubin, and because of his slow withdrawal this occurs in neonatal (postpartum) symptoms. When must undergo physiological jaundice? Normally, the baby turns pink, two to three weeks. But other than that, could be «abnormal» or pathological jaundice. It can be caused by? These are the same types of jaundice that occur in adults! Here they are:
- Hemolytic jaundice. It occurs most often in the RH-conflict pregnancy, the problem of compatibility of the blood groups of the mother and child and always flows with massive breakdown of red blood cells still in the intrauterine period of life. The child does not yellow after birth, but once born with anemia and yellowing. Exemption from the mother’s body is the key to the cessation of decay of cells, but the baby needs long-term therapy.
- Conjugational form. It does not cope with the role of hepatocytes, sometimes with inherited defects of enzymatic systems. Some readers have realized that the same process can occur in physiological jaundice, but the difference between them is that if the baby was not happy after 21 days, physiological jaundice goes into this form, and the liver has problems.
- Jaundice. The rarest form of babies and the most common in elderly people suffering from gallstone disease and cholecystitis. As no stones in newborns, the most common cause – congenital malformations of the biliary tract. Sometimes this is a consequence of intrapartum injury.
Separately isolated nuclear form. Nuclear jaundice is not related to the mechanism of occurrence. This is a consequence of poisoning of the brain (its cores), high concentrations of bilirubin. In other words, it is unfavorable intoxication of the nervous system due to the penetration of toxic bilirubin.
The very first indication of any jaundice is a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes and mucous membranes. Clearly visible the ikterichnost frenulum of the tongue. And then there are some specific symptoms that allow to distinguish «healthy» (physical) from the «sick» (morbid) types:
- In pathological jaundice the baby is born either yellow or yellow faster than at physiological shape, the jaundice persists for more than 3 to 4 weeks.
- A possible «wave» of strengthening of jaundice, which is not the case in «healthy» shape.
- Skin color can not wear the saffron and lemon color. For example, in jaundice, associated with RH-conflict pregnancy, occurs due to hemolysis and anemia. So pale on the background of jaundice and gives this lemon shade.
- There are bruises and hemorrhages on the skin.
- Appears hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen).
- Comes acholia (discoloration of faeces) and dark urine.
- There is a deterioration of baby (lethargy, refusal of the breast, crying, drowsiness, developmental delay).
Principles of treatment
As is clear from the above, various types of isterichnost treated in different ways. Treatment of jaundice physiological nature sometimes generally not required, especially in the first two weeks, as it goes away. If the process of liberation from fetal hemoglobin slows down, then apply phototherapy: a special light treatment, emitting a soft ultraviolet.
At home the baby is shown the sun and frequent breastfeeding. Only sunlight should be indirect, and the baby should not be risk of catching cold. Sometimes, to improve liver function and delay more than 2 weeks to issue hepatoprotective and choleretic ursodeoxycholic acid drugs: «Ursosan», «Ursofalk». They help the baby in the disposal of bilirubin. Shows a gentle herbal medicine that have choleretic effect, but the appointment should the pediatrician.
Treatment of pathological types of jaundice begins with the neonatologist in the maternity ward, and then a pediatrician. Assigned different drugs. So, when conjugational jaundice shows the drug «Phenobarbital». It improves the binding of bilirubin and its capture by hepatocytes.
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Homeopathic medicines a type of «I» is completely ineffective. The ineffectiveness of homeopathy has long been proven at all. Dilutions of the active ingredients in «Galstena» – from D6 to D12, that is, a decimal, from a millionth to billionth. A drop of the drug remains nothing, except ethyl alcohol, which is harmful to the baby.
Sometimes is assigned to the drug good thing, or carnitine. It has no special effect on jaundice, but shows a weak, premature children, as well as with various violations. You can assign it from the first day, so it is the metabolic and tonic drug.
In conclusion, I must say that if a woman is observed during pregnancy by a gynecologist, if she knows their chronic diseases, blood group and RH factor husband, everything will be fine because of the RH-conflict pregnancy need to know at the stage of planning. Currently, the most serious consequences (deafness, mental retardation) occur with long current nuclear jaundice. So at the first signs of jaundice it is necessary to pay attention to them and, if necessary, prescribe treatment.
Left – physiological, «orange», «saffron» form. Right – hemolytic, anemia, a «lemon» shape.