Jaundice: signs and types

Jaundice is not a disease. This symptom indicates the pathologies of the blood and liver. The main reason is excess bilirubin, which accumulates in the blood and for some reason not removed from the body in the usual way with urine and feces.

High levels of bilirubin in the blood contributes to the fact that the sclerae and the skin become yellowish. The appearance of pathology is possible not only in adults – often this type of pathology as nuclear jaundice in newborns diagnosed and that several delays the discharge of the baby from the hospital.

When breastfeeding, the disease may be delayed, because the enzymes in breast milk contribute to the reverse absorption of bilirubin from the intestines. In medicine, this term is called breastfeeding jaundice. In small children is often diagnosed carotene jaundice in response to overeating citrus fruits, carrots and other vegetables.

Causes

The appearance of the disease mostly associated with impaired functioning of the liver, gallbladder and biliary tract. In particular, icteric coloration of the skin and sclera give the following reasons:

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  • Liver, manifested in the damage of hepatocytes and loss of their ability to form from bile bilirubin. Possible viral hepatitis.
  • Hemolytic – occurs when failure of the functioning of the circulatory system, is often diagnosed in newborns. Appears as a result of anemia, lymphomas, intoxications, autoimmune diseases.
  • Obstructive – is the result of blockage of the gallbladder, ducts and retention of bile. The result of the inability to come naturally, bilirubin enters the blood.
  • Classification and treatment

    To determine causes of jaundice should find out the reasons and describe the types of jaundice. Knowing what it is, patients can protect themselves from Contracting the virus. This involves the collection of medical history, laboratory tests and instrumental investigations. After processing, the patient is diagnosed and determine the type of jaundice.

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    The suprarenal jaundice

    The main role in the cause of development of this type of disease plays excessive and rapid breakdown of bilirubin. Failing to appear naturally, the bilirubin enters the blood and causes the characteristic symptoms. The causes of this condition are as follows:

    • the presence of hemolytic anemia;
    • a massive heart attack;
    • disorders of erythropoiesis;
    • poisoning by drugs or toxic substances;
    • malaria;
    • liver damage or cancer.

    The treatment of the disease is the normalization of the liver and is most often carried out conservatively, the children are allowed the herbal medicine in jaundice.
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    Hepatic jaundice

    This kind of disease is characterized by lesions of hepatocytes, which alters their structure and disturb the function. Parenchymal jaundice is the main symptom of liver disease, but differential diagnosis is considered and the infectious nature of the disease. Causes of liver jaundice:

    • infectious diseases (viral hepatitis, mononucleosis, leptospirosis);
    • poisoning by drugs or toxic substances;
    • chronic hepatitis in exacerbation stage;
    • cirrhosis of the liver;
    • Oncology.

    In addition to the jaundiced color of the skin, to symptoms added pain in the right hypochondrium, itching of the skin, the appearance of vascular pattern and reddish spots on the palms. The treatment of this disease can be conservative (transfusion, antihistamines, phototherapy). The ineffectiveness of resorting to a surgical solution to the problem, especially if the disease is neglected. In the case infectious lesions of the body is not always possible to complete cure of the disease, therefore the patient remains a carrier of the virus, but severe symptoms were largely removed.

    Obstructive jaundice

    Another name of this group obstructive jaundice. Appears obstructive jaundice as the body’s response to a violation of the movement of bile, and incorrect flow into the duodenum. The reasons for the development of obstructive jaundice:

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    • the presence of stones in the bile duct;
    • tumors of the liver, gallbladder, duct;
    • postoperative complications (adhesions);
    • worms;
    • developmental abnormalities of bile ducts;
    • a malignant tumor, localized in the bile duct;
    • the narrowing of the duct (e.g. as a result of long-term inflammatory process).

    Typical symptoms such of jaundice: discoloration of the skin, sclera of eyes, increase temperature, itchy skin. Cholestatic jaundice is treated primarily surgically, as is necessary to restore the patency of the ducts of the biliary tract and intrahepatic ducts. This treatment is carried out using endoscopic papillosphincterotomy, cholangioscopy, catheter drainage of the bile ducts, percutaneous microfilaraemia or endoprosthesis of the bile ducts.

    Signs of the disease

    The disease is always diagnosed quite easily. Желтуха: признаки и видыThe most striking signs of jaundice is the discoloration of the skin and sclera range from light yellow to Golden tint (especially noticeable in people with fair skin). Patients complain of pain in the right hypochondrium, in region of liver. Often the disease is accompanied by symptoms of intoxication – headache, fever, nausea, chills, muscle aches and pains. The patient feels indigestion, frequent diarrhea, because of fluid loss he loses weight. With the development of true jaundice, the urine changes colour and becomes brown, and the feces on the contrary lighter.

    Diagnosis of the disease

    At the first symptoms of the disease should contact a health facility where the patient will be scheduled the necessary tests and conducted a differential diagnosis. The classic study in this case, a blood test for bilirubin, which will show an excess of this component. No less important analysis is the liver function tests, if required, is performed and a liver biopsy. On the basis of these studies, the physician can identify the nature of the disease and to plan appropriate treatment.

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    The consequences and complications of the disease

    Usually jaundice in most cases go away on their own without specific treatment. Therapy is needed only in relation to the root causes of pathology. Rarely (if child fabric for a long time defective supplied with blood) possible jaundice syndrome and the development of hemolytic anemia.

    The disease is not dangerous, but later the recognition of symptoms leads to serious problems in the functioning of the gallbladder and liver. Also, it was necessary to destroy and excrete the bilirubin, because in high concentrations it is fatal for the nervous system and can cause mental retardation in children.

    Prevention of jaundice is prevention of the underlying disease that caused the symptom. Many people struggling with the disease, interested in: jaundice contagious or not? The risk of transmission of disease from another human is present. In order not to get infected with a dangerous disease, it is necessary to observe rules of hygiene, safer sex, not to use other people’s sharp objects (nail scissors, razors, etc.).

    Must schedule of vaccinations to vaccinate a child against hepatitis.
    Life after the disease of patients is no different from healthy people, but they need to monitor their diet, not to provoke the activation of infection, periodically do a blood test at a pathology system. Also before becoming a donor, you need to know can I donate blood or not, as the carriers of some infections is a contraindication to donation.