LDL: what is it?
The acronym «LDL» stands for «low density lipoproteins». The so-called biochemical compounds of cholesterol with proteins that are engaged in the transport of cholesterol between the liver and tissues. Increasing the concentration of LDL can lead to the risk of atherosclerosis. The performance of this characteristics are important in the diagnosis of disease.
The composition of low-density lipoprotein includes the so-called cholesterol, the excess of which threatens the development of atherosclerotic plaques that directly affect the chances of heart attack and stroke. That is why cholesterol is considered «bad», its levels in the body must be monitored, especially in older people and old age.
However, this does not mean that the presence of cholesterol — a negative phenomenon. This substance is necessary for the formation of cell membranes of all body tissues, including vital organs. The hormones produced by the endocrine and exocrine glands are formed on the basis of cholesterol.
Why are VLDL, LDL, HDL and LNP? Because cholesterol is insoluble in water, there is the question of transportation of the substance. So that it could move from the liver to tissues, formed by the connection of cholesterol with proteins called lipoprotein. The concentration of chemical substances in the composition, distinguish the lipoproteins of different densities – hence the name.
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A blood test for LDL
As the analysis of cholesterol? For studies used colorimetric photometric method. Its peculiarity is that it establishes a specific concentration of a substance in the blood that allows with great accuracy to trace the picture of the disease or simply a condition of the patient. For the analysis it is necessary to take venous blood that is most often taken from the elbow veins of the hand the classic method. It is quick and in most cases safe way to estimate the cholesterol level of the patient.
In order to avoid skewing the results, avoid stress (both physical and emotional) before the test and refrain from Smoking for half an hour before him. The analysis seems to on an empty stomach, most often in the morning because you cannot eat 12 hours before blood donation.
The study recommended as a preventive measure to persons over the age of 20 at least every 5 years, but if you have risk factors up to several times a year. Often carried out the analysis for patients with a diet without animal fats and those who are treated with medicines that reduce the cholesterol level. For children recommended lipidogramu in age from 2 to 10, if the parents or older relatives have been cases of atherosclerosis or high cholesterol. The need for periodic examination of children with pathology of the cardiovascular system.
Normal cholesterol levels different people have different gender and age. So, in children and adolescents up to 19 years «good» are the figures from 60 to 140 mg/DL in boys and from 60 to 150 mg/DL in girls. People after 50 years, the norm can be considered as characteristics from 90 to 190 – 235 mg/DL, depending on specific age groups and gender. In women after 50 cholesterol is higher than men, but lower in the ages of 20 and 49 years.
Despite the fact that the above specified indicators in mg/DL, in the analysis they can also be specified in mmol/l. Regardless of age and gender, increasing the level of concentration of the substance higher than 3,37 mmol/l is dangerous to the development of atherosclerosis, and more of 4.14 — formation of coronary heart disease.
Causes raising and lowering of cholesterol
Why can be elevated LDL levels in the body? Factors for the development of this phenomenon a lot, most often the experts are the following:
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- improper diet, an unbalanced diet with a high content of animal proteins;
- lack of physical activity, including bedridden patients;
- excess weight and especially obesity;
- the abuse of alcohol and Smoking;
- diabetes mellitus;
- cholestasis stagnation of bile because of liver pathology (hepatitis and cirrhosis) or stagnation of gall stones;
- diseases of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism — low production of thyroid hormones);
- chronic liver failure;
- arterial hypertension (popularly referred to as hypertension or increased blood pressure to 140/90 mm Hg. art. and above);
- chronic nephritis (inflammatory kidney disease) and nephrotic syndrome, accompanied by increased swelling, the presence of protein in the urine and other symptoms;
- cancer of the prostate and pancreas;
- hereditary reasons — a violation of lipid metabolism because of the hyperlipoproteinemia of the second type.
Assessment of decrease in level of LDL is used only for the diagnosis of atherosclerosis as well as for prophylactic examinations of patients with elevated cholesterol. Lower LDL to think about the number of diseases, but in this case, the indicator carries no diagnostic value because of its nespecificnomu. However, if the LDL is lowered, should be tested for such diseases are:
- hereditary hypocholesterolemia;
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
- hyperthyroidism (in this case we are talking about excessive secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland);
- cancer of the bone marrow;
- severe liver disease;
- inflammatory processes in the joints;
- Palaeodiversity B12 and anemia;
- disease in the acute form, including infectious diseases.
Also lowering low-density lipoprotein may be observed in patients with extensive skin lesions, particularly burns.
Atherosclerosis: what is it?
As already mentioned, the increase in LDL may influence the risk of developing atherosclerosis. It is a chronic disease in which the walls of veins and arteries is the cholesterol and some other fats plaques or plaque. The blood vessels become inelastic and lose their density. Due to the formation of plaques and plaque inhibits the flow of blood through veins and arteries, which is dangerous to the formation of other cardiovascular diseases. The formation of the thrombus may lead to infarction of the myocardium, kidneys, intestines and other organs, stroke.
Do not run your condition, consult with your doctor about the need for test engineers and monitor your health!