Leukemia is a struggle, not a sentence

Leukemia blood disease in which disrupted the programme division and the life of bone marrow cells. As a result in the body to a failure in blood immature leukocytes arrive in large numbers who are unable to perform natural functions. If the healthy cells die in the time allotted, these continue to circulate. In turn, the healthy cells can’t fulfill its intended purpose.

 

 

Leukemia and leukemia are synonyms, designating one and the same malignant disease of the hemopoietic system.

Classification of the disease

Depending on the aggressiveness of the disease there are chronic and acute forms. Also depending on the type of leukocytes that are involved in the malignant process, there are several different types of leukemia.

Лейкоз - это борьба, а не приговор

Forms of leukemia:

  • In case of acute leukemia in the patient’s blood revealed an immature cancer cells in large quantity. The signs manifest early and the disease is developing rapidly.
  • Chronic leukemia is characterized by the ability of cancer cells to retain the ability to function as healthy cells and the disease for a long time may be asymptomatic. Therefore, this form of the disease in the human body are more commonly found during routine inspection by accident. The flow of this form is not so aggressive, however, the condition progresses over time, as the cancer cells becomes more and more. A General analysis of the blood in leukemia is the first analysis, the results of which doctors pay attention to the problem.
  • The most frequent types of leukemia:

  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • Malacitana chronic leukemia.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Why developing leukemia

    Causes of leukemia controversial in the medical community so far. You can rather talk about the risk factors that contribute to the development of the disease:

  • Radiation exposure: people who are exposed to significant doses of radiation, have a high risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Smoking can cause acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Prolonged exposure to benzene, used in chemical industry, increase the chance of developing leukemia.
  • Chemotherapy, which is carried out in cancer may lead to the development of leukemia in the future.
  • Acute leukemia can cause congenital chromosomal defects, including down syndrome.
  • With regard to heredity, in the case of leukemia, it does not play a big role. Cases where sick family members, rare, and in such case is the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Risk factors – causes of leukemia – does not always lead to the development of leukemia. Many people with a predisposition to the development of the disease due to the interaction of these factors throughout life and not get sick.

    As for the age characteristics of development, children’s exposure to this disease is the same as adults, but its flow is complicated by the weakness of the child’s body and its low resistance.

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    Signs of leukemia

    Acute and chronic leukemia are characterized by different degree of intensity and gravity, so need to consider them separately.

    Symptoms of acute leukemia

    There are some signs, which can be suspected of the disease in children and adults:

    • moderately and painlessly enlarged lymph nodes, spleen, liver. Often exaggerated tonsils;
    • appear on the skin plaques bluish-red color (leukemic infiltrates);
    • hemorrhage and bleeding (nasal, gastrointestinal tract, etc.);
    • the increase in body temperature for no apparent reason;
    • the decrease in body mass.

    In adults and children possible symptoms such as sweating, fatigue, pain in bones and joints. A small child may disrupt sleep, there is excessive anxiety, moodiness, he refuses breastfeeding. Perhaps the development of infectious complications, such as pneumonia, sepsis or purulent processes.

    Лейкоз - это борьба, а не приговор

    Leukemia in the acute form goes through several phases:

    • the attack of the disease – is accompanied by expanded clinical symptoms, covers the period from the initial development of symptoms to diagnosis, therapy and receiving their results;
    • clinical and hematological remission accompanied by normalization of the clinical condition of the patient, his blood counts, with blast cells can persist in the bone marrow;
    • relapse – the leukaemia is getting out of control therapy. Is characterized by severe course, and resistance to drugs;
    • end-stage – body is exhausted, is characterized by a total violation of hematopoiesis and immunity to therapy.

    The symptoms of chronic leukemia

    This form of the disease with poor clinical picture. Can often occur without symptoms and be detected by chance. In children the common symptoms of leukemia is excessive sweating, weakness, malaise, weight loss.

    Stages of chronic leukemia:

    • chronic – characterized by latent period, with no apparent signs and symptoms;
    • progressive – in children and adults are developing severe fever, progressing anemia, increased liver and spleen;
    • blast (in blast crisis) is to identify it only by the laboratory, as clinical manifestations are the same as during the advanced stage.
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    Diagnostic measures

  • The blood in leukemia is the main method of diagnosis. Regardless of the type of the disease, at the early stages of the process is manifested more or less pronounced anemia, increased number of leukocytes (white blood cells) and a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood. The leukocyte count range and reach from 10 to 100х10^9/l. If it is acute leukemia, up to 90% of blast cells. If it’s a chronic form, the blasts may also be observed, but not more than the Mature or maturing cells. The blood in leukemia gives different results at different stages of the disease. So, in the case of acute myeloid leukemia, in addition to increased levels of white blood cells, there are young forms of cells that should not be in healthy human blood. In the case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia observed increase of lymphocytes in the blood of the patient. When it comes to the diagnosis of the child, it is important to remember that 10% of children there have been no changes in the peripheral blood.
  • Aspiration of bone marrow through the fence of his cell. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia. A special needle doctor made a puncture of the top layer of bone, reaching the area of the bone marrow.
  • Bone marrow biopsy – the second method, giving the opportunity to study his cells. During the procedure from the patient’s body is removed piece of bone with marrow. Also carried out using local anesthesia. Biopsy and aspiration are not interchangeable procedures, therefore, for detailed analysis are assigned to the two treatments.
  • Cytogenetics – examination, during which studies genetic material in infected blood cells. This method allows you to specify the type of leukemia.
  • Puncture spinal fluid is taken in order to determine whether spread of cancer cells in the Central nervous system. For the diagnosis of acute leukemia, hold the puncture of the bone marrow. The diagnosis is confirmed if the indicators of blast cells make up more than 30%.
  • May be assigned additional tests: biochemical blood analysis, chest x-ray and other. Assigned to determine the extent of malignant processes in other organs.
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    The treatment of leukemia

    Different types of leukemia have different sensitivity to therapy.

    Treatment of acute types of leukemia

    In the treatment of this type of applied drug therapy – chemotherapy. Chemotherapy often consists of three drugs, the duration of their time can reach several years. The stages of treatment:

  • Induction of remission is aimed at eliminating cancer cells in blood and bone marrow.
  • Remission consolidation – disposal of residual cancer cells, which do not show any activity, but further capable of causing disease recurrence.
  • Support remission – the final stage, the purpose of which is the total elimination of malignant cells in the human body.
  • Bone marrow transplantation – this method of treatment is carried out in two stages. The first stage – destruction of cancer cells using chemotherapy (also can be applied radiation therapy). The second phase involves the replacement of the destroyed bone marrow by the donor’s stem cells. This method is used in case of relapse after initial treatment.

    Treatment of the chronic forms

    Treatment of this type depends on many factors. Plays the role of the stage of the disease, symptoms, leukocyte count, age of the person.

    Your doctor may use lying tactics if we are talking about the early stages of the disease. In this case, receive no treatment until signs of the disease. This is due to the fact that the use of chemotherapy in the absence of symptoms can worsen the disease.

    The use of chemotherapy involves the appointment of several drugs. If there is increased destruction of blood cells and reducing the level of red blood cells and platelets, may occur the need for removal of the spleen.