Leukemia is a struggle, not a sentence
Leukemia blood disease in which disrupted the programme division and the life of bone marrow cells. As a result in the body to a failure in blood immature leukocytes arrive in large numbers who are unable to perform natural functions. If the healthy cells die in the time allotted, these continue to circulate. In turn, the healthy cells can’t fulfill its intended purpose.
Leukemia and leukemia are synonyms, designating one and the same malignant disease of the hemopoietic system.
Classification of the disease
Depending on the aggressiveness of the disease there are chronic and acute forms. Also depending on the type of leukocytes that are involved in the malignant process, there are several different types of leukemia.
Forms of leukemia:
The most frequent types of leukemia:
Why developing leukemia
Causes of leukemia controversial in the medical community so far. You can rather talk about the risk factors that contribute to the development of the disease:
With regard to heredity, in the case of leukemia, it does not play a big role. Cases where sick family members, rare, and in such case is the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Risk factors – causes of leukemia – does not always lead to the development of leukemia. Many people with a predisposition to the development of the disease due to the interaction of these factors throughout life and not get sick.
As for the age characteristics of development, children’s exposure to this disease is the same as adults, but its flow is complicated by the weakness of the child’s body and its low resistance.
Signs of leukemia
Acute and chronic leukemia are characterized by different degree of intensity and gravity, so need to consider them separately.
Symptoms of acute leukemia
There are some signs, which can be suspected of the disease in children and adults:
- moderately and painlessly enlarged lymph nodes, spleen, liver. Often exaggerated tonsils;
- appear on the skin plaques bluish-red color (leukemic infiltrates);
- hemorrhage and bleeding (nasal, gastrointestinal tract, etc.);
- the increase in body temperature for no apparent reason;
- the decrease in body mass.
In adults and children possible symptoms such as sweating, fatigue, pain in bones and joints. A small child may disrupt sleep, there is excessive anxiety, moodiness, he refuses breastfeeding. Perhaps the development of infectious complications, such as pneumonia, sepsis or purulent processes.
Leukemia in the acute form goes through several phases:
- the attack of the disease – is accompanied by expanded clinical symptoms, covers the period from the initial development of symptoms to diagnosis, therapy and receiving their results;
- clinical and hematological remission accompanied by normalization of the clinical condition of the patient, his blood counts, with blast cells can persist in the bone marrow;
- relapse – the leukaemia is getting out of control therapy. Is characterized by severe course, and resistance to drugs;
- end-stage – body is exhausted, is characterized by a total violation of hematopoiesis and immunity to therapy.
The symptoms of chronic leukemia
This form of the disease with poor clinical picture. Can often occur without symptoms and be detected by chance. In children the common symptoms of leukemia is excessive sweating, weakness, malaise, weight loss.
Stages of chronic leukemia:
- chronic – characterized by latent period, with no apparent signs and symptoms;
- progressive – in children and adults are developing severe fever, progressing anemia, increased liver and spleen;
- blast (in blast crisis) is to identify it only by the laboratory, as clinical manifestations are the same as during the advanced stage.
The treatment of leukemia
Different types of leukemia have different sensitivity to therapy.
Treatment of acute types of leukemia
In the treatment of this type of applied drug therapy – chemotherapy. Chemotherapy often consists of three drugs, the duration of their time can reach several years. The stages of treatment:
Bone marrow transplantation – this method of treatment is carried out in two stages. The first stage – destruction of cancer cells using chemotherapy (also can be applied radiation therapy). The second phase involves the replacement of the destroyed bone marrow by the donor’s stem cells. This method is used in case of relapse after initial treatment.
Treatment of the chronic forms
Treatment of this type depends on many factors. Plays the role of the stage of the disease, symptoms, leukocyte count, age of the person.
Your doctor may use lying tactics if we are talking about the early stages of the disease. In this case, receive no treatment until signs of the disease. This is due to the fact that the use of chemotherapy in the absence of symptoms can worsen the disease.
The use of chemotherapy involves the appointment of several drugs. If there is increased destruction of blood cells and reducing the level of red blood cells and platelets, may occur the need for removal of the spleen.