Leukocytes and lymphocytes increased
Our blood consists of many different cells, each of which performs a specific function. Leucocytes and lymphocytes are white blood cells responsible for immunity. The change in the number of blood cells indicates certain changes in the human body or diseases. To determine the number of these cells is clinical (detailed) analysis of blood.
What are leukocytes and why their number may increase?
Leukocytes are white cells of the blood fractions that are responsible for the immune response of the organism to the introduction of the foreign material. There are several types of leukocytes (eosinophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils). Increase (leukocytosis) or decrease (leukopenia) of these cells may indicate disease. Sometimes these changes indicate the processes in the body, not disease-related. To determine cause of leukocytosis can be a doctor. Possible causes of leukocytosis can be:
- Physiological processes in the body. It was observed that the leukocyte count rises slightly immediately after a meal, immunostimulatory drugs after exercise. Such leukocytosis passes quickly and often goes unnoticed.
- Stress. It is proved that during stress, the organism operates in the protection mode, activate all the immune system, and therefore increases the number of immune cells. The leukocytes increased not long, their number returns to normal after the person regains balance.
- Wounds and traumas. Possible cause of leukocytosis may be in the infection entering the wound or inflammatory process that accompanies injury or damage to the integrity of tissues. In both cases, the immune system will produce more immune cells.
- Any inflammatory process in the body is infectious or noninfectious in nature. For example, for burns, inflammation of the joints (arthritis), cell death (infarction) and inflammation of the meninges of the brain (meningitis).
- Infectious diseases (measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria, tonsillitis, tuberculosis, pneumonia and others).
- Neutrophilia (increase of neutrophils) may indicate malignant blood diseases or acute infectious processes.
- Eosinophilia (increased levels of eosinophils) is a consequence of allergic reactions, malaria or parasitic diseases (helminths, lambliosis, enterobiasis, etc.).
- Basophilia (increased basophils) indicates ulcerative colitis, pregnancy or myxedema.
The white blood cells will be lowered when all the conditions involving inhibition of the immune response. It can be a long period of treatment with immunosuppressants (including corticosteroids), autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis), aplastic anemia (inhibition of the formation of blood cells in the bone marrow), and others.
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Lymphocytosis (lymphocytes when increased) can be absolute and relative. Absolute lymphocytosis is a condition in which the number of lymphocytes increased along with the total number of white blood cells, that is, lymphocytosis occurs along with leukocytosis. This occurs when whooping cough, tuberculosis and lymphosarcoma (cancer). Relative lymphocytosis is an increase of lymphocytes compared to normal number of white blood cells. A lymphocytosis may occur in the following cases:
- During any viral infection. It is the lymphocytes encounter the virus in the body and start the fight. Therefore, the penetration of the viral infection the immune system begins to actively release in the blood lymphocytes. It is found in influenza, SARS, rubella, chickenpox, whooping cough and infectious mononucleosis.
- After infectious diseases – we are talking about the so-called post-infectious lymphocytosis.
- In autoimmune diseases (rheumatism, systemic lupus erythematosus, etc.).
- In hyperthyroidism, the increase in the level of thyroid hormones.
- If splenomegaly – enlargement of the spleen. This body is responsible for the formation of red blood cells, and its increase may increase the number of certain cells, including lymphocytes.
- In malignant blood diseases (limfoleikoze).
- Hyperplasia (proliferation) of the thymus. This organ of hematopoiesis involved in the formation of red blood cells, particularly lymphocytes, its increase leads to the increase in the level of lymphocytes in the blood.