Low blood pressure: causes, symptoms and treatment
Low blood pressure – a widespread hemodynamic changes. It is called hypotension. This deviation occurs in 4% of the population. It is often seen in Teens, women 30 – 40 years and older patients.
What pressure is considered low?
It is considered a low indicator blood pressure (BP) less than 90 over 60 man over the age of 18. When assessing blood pressure in men and women, whose normal rates are different from standard (140 – 90 90 – 60), hypotension (hypotension) include all values that are below the daily 20 percent or more. To find out what blood pressure is considered low in a child, it is necessary to use design tables.
Heart pressure (the upper, systolic) is how much power was consumed by the myocardium to eject blood into the arteries. Peripheral (lower diastolic) BLOOD depends on the level of resistance vessels. What causes lower blood pressure or decrease depend on the state of the arteries, and blood vessels constricted or dilated.
Causes of hypotension
What appears hypotension? Hypotension may be due to the following reasons:
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- increased fitness;
- the adaptation factors (living in high altitudes, work in conditions of hot shops, of being in places with high humidity (in the subtropics);
- sharp decline in the number of blood in the vessels when bleeding, burns, etc.;
- heart failure;
- reduced tonus of the arteries, which can be caused by a shock (septic, etc.);
- violation of the tone of the nervous system – this leads to chronic stress, shift work, lack of sleep;
- traumatic brain lesions (brain and spinal);
- change the position of the body with a sharp rise from the prone position observed orthostatic reaction;
- intoxication (for tumors, etc.);
- endocrine disorders;
- kidney disease (chronic renal failure).
There are situations when systolic blood pressure decreases more than diastolic. In this case, you must seek not the causes of high blood pressure and causes hypotension common.
What are the types of hypotension occur?
Experts distinguish several types of hypotension:
- Physiological. This hypotension occurs in healthy people and is not a sign of disease. If a person regularly experiences significant workload (professional sports), to ensure adequate blood supply to organs in the rest he needs less blood flow, which is manifested by hypotension.
- Pathological. In this case, the reduction in blood pressure is the result of diseases that lead to disruption of hemodynamics.
Pathological hypotension is divided into:
- Acute, developing rapidly. In this case there is a sharp decrease of hemodynamic parameters. Such episodes reduce the pressure (shock, collapse) are not independent diseases. Their appearance precedes the development of other diseases (od, myocardial infarction, etc.). Complication of these cardiac disorders is an acute reduction of blood pressure. The low blood pressure observed in acutely developing hypotension.
- Chronic accompanying the patient for a long time. In this case, the downgrade lie in the change of regulatory processes on the system hemodynamics.
Based on the pathological causes of hypotension can be divided into:
- Primary. In this case, the pressure is reduced independently. Hypotension is idiopathic (essential) and occurs because of a neurosis-like changes in the Central nervous system (vasomotor areas). This explains why this disease occurs on the background of prolonged and excessive psycho-emotional overload.
- Secondary. It is a consequence of other diseases, their complications. Hypotonia occurs with diseases of the digestive system (peptic ulcer, etc.), blood system (anemia, including nutritional), endocrine origin (diabetes), coronary disease (myocardial infarction) and many others.
What symptoms are observed at low pressure?
By reducing blood pressure tissues of the body receive less nutrients and oxygen. This is reflected in the disruption of organ-specific and General manifestations. The signs of hypotension is most clearly manifested in idiopathic form. In this case, the symptoms of low pressure not masked by the effects of the primary disease. Under reduced pressure, the objective symptoms are manifestations of autonomic disorders. These include increased hydration of the feet and palms, bradycardia, low body temperature to less than 36º and blanching of the skin.
Subjective symptoms vary depending on the severity and duration of hypotension. A feeling of weakness, lethargy, apathy and fatigue even after a long period of rest, confusion, memory loss and drowsiness are the most typical complaints for the hypotensive. In chronic hypotension often be a feeling of lack of air, slowing heart rate, pain in the heart and joints.
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You may experience sensitivity to external stimuli. Photophobia and intolerance of loud sounds do not occur in isolation. Hypotensive patients do not tolerate transport (they get motion sickness even in the subway). Temperature sensitivity is reflected in the poor tolerance of cold and heat. Sensitive response to the heat, change in atmospheric pressure and humidity.
With increasing vagal tone, these phenomena are compounded by the violation of the secretory function of the stomach (manifested by bitter taste in the mouth, nausea, heartburn, vomiting, heaviness in the abdomen and vomiting). There are violations in the genital area: decreased libido, violation of regularity, duration and the abundance of menstrual cycle, impotence.
From the extremities revealed a decrease in their temperature, numbness. In cases of a significant decrease in the peripheral circulation may be a violation of the sensitivity in the hands and feet.
Treatment of low pressure
Very low pressure can lead to a significant deterioration of health. Than to treat hypotension depends on its type:
- Treatment of secondary hypotension is based on treatment of the disease, which helped to reduce pressure. With endocrine disorders need for hormonal therapy. In burn disease is the replenishment of blood volume, detoxification activities, combating the infection, normalization of the heat exchange and stimulation of reparation will lead to the normalization of HELL.
- The primary treatment of hypotension includes a range of activities. Normalization of diet, work and rest play a significant role in the normalization of HELL. Patients are recommended to exclude extreme exposure to temperature, humidity, sound, pressure, etc. Meds of low pressure have a tonic effect. They contain caffeine.
How to treat hypotension, depends on the speed of its development. Acute hypotension in shock or collapse needs hospital treatment. In the chronic form hypotension can normalize blood pressure without hospitalization.
What is dangerous low blood pressure?
Hypotension tissue depleted of oxygen and nutrients. They exhibit changes that reduce adaptive capacity. Fainting is particularly dangerous, including when working with machinery.
Oxygen starvation of the brain can cause a stroke ischemic origin. The frequency of occurrence for hypotension equal to the number of vascular accidents against high pressure. Gradual reorganization in the structure of vessels on the background of hypotension leading to dystonic or hypertonic conditions.