Low pulse: what causes
A pulse or a palpable fluctuation of the arterial wall, the frequency of contractions of the heart muscle. Often there is a disturbance of heart rhythm as bradycardia, or slow pulse to numbers smaller than the lower limit of normal (59 and less strokes per minute). The reasons for this status should be ascertained from a General practitioner or cardiologist. If necessary, the treatment should strictly follow the recommendations of experts, mindful of the fact that the heart is a vital organ, and one of the first places causes of death worldwide is heart disease.
Low pulse: causes
Why is low (rare) pulse? This condition can be caused by factors that are conditionally divided into 3 groups. The first group of reasons: decrease in heart rate caused by the physiological state of the organism. While pathology of the heart is not observed and no treatment is required:
- status after waking up;
- in meditation, during trances and relaxation treatments;
- from professional athletes at rest (high of exercise causes deep relaxation of the myocardium);
- genetic factor – a constant low frequency pulse in the absence of heart disease is inherited.
The second group of reasons for a slowing heart rate the direct effects on the heart:
- hypothermia – hypothermia;
- reception, especially long-term, medications that directly or indirectly reduce heart rate (a special case is that increased intake of cardiac glycosides);
- partial or complete fasting;
- severe infection and poisoning with symptoms of acute intoxication;
- hypothyroid syndrome;
- increased activity of the parasympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system;
- different types of neuroses;
- increased intracranial pressure due to tumor, hematoma, cerebral edema;
- massive blood loss with hypovolemic shock (loss of large volumes of liquid);
- in some cases the third trimester of pregnancy, when the increased uterus compresses the inferior Vena cava.
The third group of reasons for a decreased heart rate is directly linked to certain disorders of the heart and cardiovascular system in General:
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- arterial hypotension (hypotension) where blood volume is not enough for sufficient pressure on the walls of the arteries;
- inflammatory diseases of the heart and its membranes: myocarditis, endocarditis;
- atherosclerotic disease of the major (arterial) vessels – «plaque» impede or block the blood flow to a certain area of the vascular system;
- heart block and arrhythmia;
- syndrome sick sinus;
- condition acute myocardial infarction;
- postinfarction cardiosclerosis;
- age-related degeneration of the myocardium, in which the elderly person the heart rate becomes stable and low.
The danger of reducing heart rate
Low heart rate is a threat to human health if it is caused by one or several reasons from the second and third groups mentioned above. Slowed blood flow leads to insufficient oxygen supply of vital organs (brain, heart, lungs) and other internal organs and tissues of the body. The result is hypoxia (oxygen starvation) which can cause severe complications, including cardiac arrest.
The constant low pulse leads to a state of fatigue, General weakness, dizziness. A significant drop in heart rate dangerous loss of consciousness with unpredictable outcome. In this case, you should call an ambulance, give the patient to inhale the vapors of ammonia, open a window, to relax the constraining piece of clothing. During cardiac arrest, there needs to be a resuscitation – chest compressions and artificial respiration.
What to do with the low heart rate?
It is important not to bring the body to dangerous condition and to seek examination in a medical institution. First find out the cause of a persistent decrease of the pulse, and then the doctor prescribes the necessary treatment. You should do a full examination of the heart and cardiovascular system. For this assigned functional methods of diagnostics (ECG, Holter monitoring, daily blood pressure monitoring, ultrasound of the heart and blood vessels, coronary angiography, radiography of the chest). The detection of heart disease, the patient is monitored and treated by a cardiologist. If the disease is not associated with pathology of the cardiovascular system, the treatment is performed by another specialist: therapist, neurologist, endocrinologist, psychotherapist.
Drug treatment if needed as prescribed by the physician, with full examination and thorough medical history (history of disease). Sometimes used sympathomimetic Izadrin, however, it is prescribed with caution because of the side effects associated with the possibility of provocation from other rhythm disorders.
Increase heart rate help exchange techniques tincture of Pantokrina, Eleutherococcus, Schisandra, Ginseng. A slight decrease in heart rate helps improve black or green tea, in the absence of contraindications – a Cup of natural coffee. Acceptance of any drug and stimulating beverage, be sure to coordinate with your doctor.
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In cases of persistent severe bradycardia addressed the question of surgical treatment – pacing. Pacemaker (EX), or an artificial pacemaker helps to regulate heart rate in accordance with the specified parameters. External stimulation is performed under the supervision of a physician in a medical facility and is temporary in nature – «sets» heart on a job in the right rhythm. The ineffectiveness of this method and severe the patient’s condition is internal cardioversion – a surgery to implant permanent or temporary EX.