Lymphadenitis: what is it?

You saw how resolve edema? The human body in addition to circulatory system that penetrates almost all organs and tissues (except the vitreous body, lens and cartilage) requires a special drainage system. Blood consists of formed elements and liquid portion – plasma. Plasma safely pass through the wall of blood capillaries, becoming interstitial fluid. To relieve in the bloodstream of edematous fluid, we need a system of capillaries and ducts, which is called lymph. And lymph nodes – «node protection station» of the system.

In medicine there is such term: «hematogenous and lymphogenous dissemination». This means the spread of something harmful (cancer cells or infectious agents) through the blood stream and lymphatic system. And if the way of pathogens in the blood are white blood cells and the immune system antibodies, in the way of microbes in the lymphatic system up the lymph nodes. If lymph nodes inside the «hard fight», he inflamed. Inflammation of this organ is lymphadenitis. But as is often the lymph nodes are located in groups (in the groin, armpits), then inflamed several. It was this picture, and becomes visible to man.

Reasons

Conditions in order to show signs of inflammation of a lymph node, most often created due to the influence of the following factors:

  • The main reason is the spread of purulent process. Pathogens are streptococci, staphylococci, and other microbes or their toxins.
  • Also there are diseases, the essential cause of which is the reproduction and accumulation of pathogens in the lymph nodes (bubonic plague, anthrax, syphilis, tuberculosis).
  • Viral infections, isotropic (having the affinity) to the lymphatic tissue: cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr, measles, HIV infection.
  • Parasites (filaria, Toxoplasma, Trypanosoma).
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From non-infectious causes of lymphadenitis, the most famous are the following:

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  • rheumatoid arthritis;
  • dermatomyositis and other connective tissue;
  • SLE – systemic lupus erythematosus, with the formation of lupus lymphadenitis.

We must distinguish lymphadenitis and lymphadenopathy. What is it? It is a process of enhancing lymph nodes in which no signs of inflammation in the surrounding tissues. What are those signs?

Symptoms of lymphadenitis

Like any inflammation, inflammation of the lymph nodes manifested by the following features, which can reach different degrees of severity:

  • Redness of the skin over a group of lymph nodes.
  • A feeling of warmth or heat on the skin surface.
  • Swelling, swelling on the lymph nodes. This symptom is most pronounced where well-developed subcutaneous tissue. Thus, the pronounced degree of swelling can reach the cervical, axillary and inguinal lymph nodes. And, for example, or popliteal lymph nodes zadnesheynyh not reach such large sizes because of the paucity of subcutaneous tissue.
  • Soreness. Typically, pain on the lymph node or a constant throbbing, aggravated by movement or palpation.

Лимфаденит: что это такое?
Palpation is an important method of investigation of the lymph node. So, under normal lymphadenitis, the lymph nodes are movable, painless, not soldered to the subcutaneous tissue. If lymphadenopathy of these signs of inflammation, but there are others. For example, the lymphogenous dissemination of metastases in cancer in the lymph nodes, they are enlarged, painless, but the density is not elastic, and rocky. In contrast, lymphadenitis, lymphadenopathy can cause some medications, for example, cytostatics, anticancer drugs and other drugs that affect the immune system.

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Confirmation of the diagnosis

When pronounced inflammation when the diagnosis of lymphadenitis is not in doubt, it is necessary to establish its cause. For this purpose the following methods:

  • General clinical blood test that will show whether there are changes outside of a local focus, for example, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate or leukocytosis.
  • Research on HIV (with lymphadenopathy, which adopted a generalized form).
  • Puncture of the lymph node, which reveals the final cause. Puncture exploring not only the cell composition (including, for atypical cells), but also make bacteriological crops, and conduct immunological research on viruses.

It is important that some localizations lymphadenitis need to use special tactics. For example, when you see the «sores» on the penis and the subsequent emergence of the inguinal lymphadenitis, it is almost a 100% probability may be the primary period of syphilis. If inguinal adenopathy is expressed on the one hand, it is necessary to exclude the infringement of inguinal hernia, located unusually low. In childhood lymphadenitis in the neck can be mistaken for allergic angioedema in connection with the similarity of symptoms, and Vice-versa. Therefore, for the diagnosis of lymphadenitis and lymphadenopathy is very important properly collected history, including medicinal.

Complications

Threat not as a defeat lymphadenitis lymph node or group of lymph nodes, it is dangerous breakthrough infection further, getting into the blood system. Sometimes a «break» occurs in the literal sense, and the lymph node revealed through a skin fistula. He alone is drained. In some cases, this «spontaneous surgical treatment» leads to a significant improvement and even recovery from scarring. In other cases, the lymphadenitis complicated by the following lesions:

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  • bone marrow failure – purulent osteomyelitis;
  • cervical lymph nodes can be infection on the shell and on the substance of the brain, with the development of purulent meningitis or meningoencephalitis;
  • during the breakthrough of pathogens or pus in the blood sepsis occurs, which can lead to septic shock and death of the patient.

Therefore, when the slightest suspicion of an increase in or discomfort in the lymph nodes need to self-medicate and consult doctor.