Lymphadenopathy: causes, symptoms

The lymphatic system in the body responsible for cleansing the tissues of toxins, the flow of excess fluid from the cells, protecting the body from harmful substances, viruses and bacteria. Is this system of vessels and lymph nodes that are located in the course of these vessels. These nodes are the first to meet unwanted guests – toxins, allergens, bacteria or viruses. Therefore, lymphadenopathy, or swollen lymph nodes – a sign that the body is fighting an antigen. The reasons for this increase may be a number of other causes or diseases, life-threatening. Therefore, when the first manifestations of lymphadenopathy is necessary to consult a doctor.

Possible causes of lymph node enlargement

  • Infection. To provoke lymphadenopathy can the introduction of viruses or bacteria in he lymph node and reactive increase of the node on the infectious process in the surrounding area (reactive lymphadenopathy). For example, axillary lymphadenitis (axillary lymphadenopathy) may accompany hidradenitis (inflammation of sweat glands under the armpit), inguinal lymphadenopathy (enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes) may become a symptom of the sexual infection, and submandibular lymphadenitis (enlargement of the submandibular lymph nodes or submandibular lymphadenopathy) is a symptom of tonsillitis, or pharyngitis pulpitis. To generalized infection, accompanied by swollen lymph nodes include tuberculosis, brucellosis, syphilis, HIV, viral hepatitis, toxoplasmosis, chlamydia, infectious mononucleosis (more common in children), and others.
  • Of the tumor. Swollen lymph nodes in the tumor process can be a symptom of malignancy in the lymph nodes, and a manifestation of metastatic cancer or leukemia.
  • Immunoproliferative. It is a process that occurs in the lymph node and is accompanied by the rapid growth of immune cells and the tissue growth site. It is not associated with either infection or tumors. May occur in autoimmune diseases or Hodgkin’s disease.
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    What are the options of lymphadenopathy?

    Depending on the localization and the extent of enlarged lymph nodes there are several options lymphadenopathy:

    • Local lymphadenopathy. This increase is one of the lymph nodes of one of the groups of lymph nodes. This variant can be attributed to the increase in single node occipital group of rubella, increase in one of the submandibular lymph nodes with gingivitis.
    • Regional lymphadenopathy is the increase in multiple lymph nodes in one or two adjoining groups. For example, an increase zadnesheynyh nodes of the group may be a sign of infection of the scalp, behind the ear group – a sign of otitis media, peremeshennoi group – a sign of infection of the upper respiratory tract. Interestingly, the number of nodes the supraclavicular group is almost never a jet. Such symptom is a symptom of either Hodgkin’s disease or metastatic tumors of the breast, stomach and lungs.
    • Лимфаденопатия: причины, симптомы

    • Generalized lymphadenopathy is enlarged lymph nodes in multiple groups. This option may increase not only peripheral nodes, but also the visceral (abdominal or intra-abdominal group of nodes, hilar, mesenteric, pelvic, mediastinal, etc.). Common reason for this option is the HIV infection. Retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy in combination with the number of nodes of the abdominal cavity, axillary and inguinal nodes can be a symptom of Hodgkin’s lymphoma – severe malignant disease. The increase of intrathoracic lymph nodes in combination with axillary lymphadenopathy can be a sign of tuberculosis or lung cancer.

    Symptoms of lymphadenopathy

    To determine the exact cause of the enlarged lymph nodes is necessary to a full examination of the patient. Sometimes the right collection of complaints, anamnesis and examination of the patient gives a complete picture about the disease. Often swollen lymph nodes associated with specific symptoms, such as:

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    • Symptoms of skin and mucous membranes (rash, bleeding, scratches, canker, animal bites). Such manifestations may speak about the infectious nature of the lymphadenitis.
    • Enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly). As a rule, this syndrome is accompanied by viral illness (infectious mononucleosis), blood cancer (lymphocytic leukemia).
    • Joint pain, limitation of movement in them. As a rule, articular syndrome in combination with lymphadenopathy accompanies connective tissue diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis).
    • Fever. The fever is a symptom of any inflammatory or infectious process. A combination of fever, profuse night sweats, and adenopathy favors lymphoma.
    • Symptoms of the respiratory system (cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis), along with the increase of intrathoracic lymph nodes can be a manifestation of tumor in the chest or tuberculosis.
    • Submandibular, BTE, or prenesena lymphadenopathy and symptoms of upper respiratory tract (sore throat, congestion of nasal breathing, ear pain, headache) speak in favor of sinusitis, otitis, tonsillitis and other ENT diseases.
    • Symptoms of the genital organs (pain during urination or intercourse, discharge from the genitals) in combination with inguinal lymphadenopathy signs of urogenital infection.

    Treatment of lymphadenopathy

    After all the diagnostic procedures and billing of the diagnosis you can begin treatment. Treatment tactics will depend on the reasons for the increase of lymph nodes. To infections – is an antiviral or antibacterial therapy, in tumor lesions of the body treatment is conducted in a dedicated Haematology or Oncology Department.