Lymphocytes and monocytes increased
When the penetration into the body a foreign substance is the immune response. This increases the amount of specific blood cells, compared to normal condition. Protection the immune system provides constant internal environment of the body. This can be achieved by developing special substances against the specific pathogen (antibodies) or direct destruction of the foreign agent. The increase in the level of monocytes and lymphocytes in the blood occurs with activation of the immune system.
How does the immune system?
In the system of the immune response there are two methods of combating alien agent:
- With the help of phagocytosis. In this case, the pathogen is destroyed by the special cell. They are absorbed entirely or partially with subsequent digestion by the enzymes of lysosomes (subject to phagocytosis).
- With the help of humoral substances. In this case, the identification of a foreign substance, and against it are immunoglobulins (antibodies). These special substances destroy the pathogen, engaging with him in the interaction.
For the implementation of the immune response in the blood can be detected 3 types of leukocytes: granulocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes.
The functions of monocytes?
Monocytes circulating in the blood are young cells and go into tissue to become Mature histiocytes and macrophages. They migrate to the mucous membranes and skin, which are the first to meet with foreign agents. There are macrophages and histiocytes phagocytose the pathogen.
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The increase in the number of monocytes (monocytosis) is a sign of tissue contact with a foreign substance. There is growing demand in macrophages. As precursors of macrophages are monocytes, their production increases. During delivery to the tissues monocytosis in the blood can be seen in the analysis of blood. The increase in monocytes can occur when:
- inflammatory diseases of the infectious nature of acute or chronic (viral, fungal, bacterial, parasitic);
- state after infectious diseases;
- diseases of an autoimmune nature;
- the presence of malignant diseases;
- hematological processes;
- phosphorus poisoning, tetrachlorethane.
Absolute monocytosis can cause diseases such as mononucleosis, influenza, SARS, tuberculosis, candidiasis, syphilis, appendicitis, adnexitis, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.
The functions of lymphocytes?
Lymphocytes have several functions. They regulate the process start and stop immune response recognize foreign proteins, to produce antibodies, kill cells of the pathogen, retain information about the meeting, characterized the genetic features of the embedded agent. Thus, they are involved in two directions of an immune response: the cellular (phagocytosis) and humoral (production of antibodies). Lymphocytes increased in the presence of:
- viral diseases;
- some types of drugs: levodopa, narcotic analgesics, valproic acid, phenytoin, and others;
- violations of the blood system to cause lymphocytosis chronic lymphocytic leukemia, heavy chain disease and the period of racemization;
- exposure to toxic chemicals – growth of lymphocytes contribute to carbon disulphide, lead, tetrachlorethen, arsenic, etc.
The increase in the total number of lymphocytes is observed in the occurrence of most diseases of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis to SARS. The presence of absolute lymphocytosis is accompanied by enlarged lymph nodes, liver and spleen.
What is analyzed for multiple parameters?
To determine the causes of the disease is important not only isolated values increase of the parameters of the leukocyte series. An important indicator is the combination of the level of monocytes and lymphocytes. An integrated approach to assessment helps:
- to set the stage of the pathological process;
- find out the forecast for the development of the disease;
- to identify the causes of the disease;
- to confirm the diagnosis;
- to determine the degree of impairment in the immune system.
In some cases there is a combination of monocytosis and lymphocytosis?
Due to differences in the duration of life of monocytes and lymphocytes, their preferential localization and functions, associated to the increase of their level in the blood is observed in acute infectious processes caused by pathogen viral nature. Such a change in the blood is observed at SARS, influenza, rubella, herpes, varicella, etc. Important is the relative decline in the number of neutrophils in the blood. With this laboratory picture and conduct additional methods of examination, the doctor will prescribe antiviral treatment.
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