Lymphocytes in the blood of women, men and children: normal age-table
Human blood is a unique liquid tissue that perform a lot of functions. The most famous of them – the transport of blood capable of providing cellular respiration. It gives the organs and tissues with the oxygen and picks up carbon dioxide. Also blood is able to carry nutrients and remove metabolic products from sweat and urine.
A very important function of blood is a protective – thanks to the presence of white blood cells, our body is able to resist many infectious diseases. The lymphocytes in the blood is one of the most important parts of the immune system. How many lymphocytes should be present in human blood, and what is their protective function?
These cells belong to the numerous family of leukocytes. When viewed under a microscope during the processing of the special dyes, the cytoplasm of the cells contains specific granules characteristic of neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils – granulocytes of representatives. This is due to the fact that lymphocytes are not the direct destroyers of bacteria. They don’t get the pathogen and not «eat» him, as do neutrophils. Their task is to provide humoral immunity, produce antibodies that will bind not only the pathogens and their toxins, but also to interact with allergens and other «troublemakers» of homeostasis.
What are lymphocytes
Depending on the functions, there are:
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- T-cells (killer, helper, suppressor). These are the cells that directly fight with enemies and regulate the production of antibodies.
- B-cells. They help other cells to recognize harmful agents that are able to their recognition and production of antibodies.
- NK-lymphocytes (natural killers). They monitor the timely destruction of cells that transform into cancer.
The content of lymphocytes in the blood
The number of these white cells in the blood in normal adult human is in second place among the leukocytes. Most leukocytes are Mature segmented neutrophils (46 – 71%), lymphocytes accounted for between 19% and 37% of the total number of leukocytes. If the contents of all cells are below the norm (with lymphopenia), it is sometimes difficult to figure out, was it reduced because of the infection or the infection caused by the decrease in the number of lymphocytes. In other words, you need to understand what is primary and what is secondary. The most common causes of lymphopenia are:
- miliary tuberculosis;
- the secretion of lymph into the lumen of the intestine and the loss of her cellular structure;
- aplastic anemia;
- systemic lupus erythematosus;
- receiving cytotoxic drugs;
- status during radiotherapy.
If the number of lymphocytes is more than normal (with lymphocytosis), then this may indicate the load on the immune system when the body to fight infection, and many other violations. The increase in the number of lymphocytes in the blood occurs in the following pathological conditions:
- in infectious mononucleosis;
- in viral hepatitis;
- in cytomegalovirus infection;
- with SARS, whooping cough, toxoplasmosis, rubella, herpes infection;
- in diseases of the blood (tumor): chronic and acute lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma;
- in chronic poisoning by certain substances: arsenic, lead, carbon tetrachloride.
The change in the number of lymphocytes in the blood is not always a sign of disease, because lymphopenia, and lymphocytosis, is not only absolute and relative. In the case of the relative changes occurring not absolute reduction or increase in the number of lymphocytes, and accordingly, the operating time of other types of leukocytes or their disappearance. As for absolute values, the normal maintenance of all types of lymphocytes in the blood of an adult ranges from 1000 to 3000 units in one microliter.
Both men and women no significant difference in the number of lymphocytes: after 16 years of age, their number becomes constant, and constancy is the norm. This is due to the General maturation of the immune system, a decrease in the function of the thymus gland – the thymus. It as children Mature, «learning» and differenciate different lymphocytes.
Therefore, the greatest variation in the number of these cells in the peripheral blood are observed in children, including babies under a year. Occurs sudden surge, and in the period from two weeks of age until the year their number can exceed all the others put together the types of white blood cells, and then they were gradually reduced to the above values. Table that characterizes the change in the number of lymphocytes and other formed elements of blood by age:
As can be seen, in contrast to basophils and eosinophils, normal children in relation to the lymphocytes are exposed to significant fluctuations and peak at yearling age. These changes once again show that the treatment of the child’s body at this stage of development should be approached with caution, given the fact that the immune system has a higher load: with the end of receipt of secretory immunoglobulins from mother’s milk the child needs to independently develop their own immunity to withstand all life’s adversities.
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