Lymphocytes increased in the adult blood
Lymphocytes are blood cells responsible for immunity. Indicators of the level of lymphocytes in the blood play an important role in the diagnosis of communicable and other diseases. The increase in the number of these cells is called lymphocytosis, and lower — lymphocytopenia. It should be noted that the lymphocytes a kind of white blood cells, so it is important to evaluate the performance in comparison with others.
The types of leukocytes
Depending on the functions of the following types of leukocytes:
- neutrophils make up about 70% of the total number of immune cells responsible for phagocytosis (uptake and elimination) of pathogenic bacteria;
- eosinophils — in most cases does not exceed 1.5% of the total number of immune cells, perform the function of an antihistamine;
- basophils — account for only 0 – 0,5% of the total number of immune cells engaged in the production of heparin (protein that prevents blood clotting) and histamine, operating as the initiator of inflammation in the damaged tissues, accelerating the healing of wounds;
- monocytes — do not exceed 4% of all leukocytes; are in the blood stream for no more than 30 – 40 hours, after which turn into macrophages;
- macrophages play an important role in supporting the immune system, like neutrophils they are engaged in phagocytosis of bacteria as well as stimulate the development of the immune response, convert the number of antigens;
- lymphocytes — make up about 24% of the total number of immune cells, can «live» from several days up to ten years, stimulate the immune response, but also directly participate in them: affect the formation of antibodies, rejection of foreign organisms destroy tumor cells.
All the above varieties of white blood cells form two major groups: granulocytes (more than the numerical group to 72%) and agranulocytes (to 28%). The difference between them is the place of generation, form and function. Granulocytes are produced only in the bone marrow, have a clearly segmented nucleus (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils). Agranulocytes characterized by the absence of granules-particles in the nucleus, it has a pronounced bean-shaped or oval.
Talking about leukocytosis?
Leukocytosis referred to as the high content of leukocytes in the blood. As already mentioned, there are quite a number of types of these cells, therefore, it is important to consider their relationship. For example, the increase in the concentration of eosinophils may testify only about the allergic reactions, neutrophilosis — the phenomenon is more serious.
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Distinguish between absolute and relative leukocytosis. In the first case, the bone marrow releases more «protective» cells or increases the flow of income into the bloodstream. The second option involves the redistribution of leukocytes, accumulation them directly to the site of the development of the inflammatory process.
Causes of leukocytosis can be different, including physiological. Increase the number of leukocytes in the blood exercise, a recent meal (which a blood test and is recommended to do in the morning on an empty stomach), pregnancy, childbirth and the end of the menstrual cycle.
Regarding pathological factors, they for the most part associated with infectious lesions. In order to further explore the possible pathology to be said about each of the varieties of leucocytes. The ratio of different types of these cells is called leukocyte formula. To understand the situation, this article will also be partially affected threads reduce the number of leukocytes (leukopenia).
Causes of leukopenia
Leukopenia can be associated with the action of hereditary factors and genetic disorders, but in most cases, the reason is:
- unbalanced diet;
- malignant and benign formations in bone marrow;
- violation of the process of generating white blood cells;
- pathologies of the endocrine system.
Neutrophilia and nitropropane
If in blood neutrophils, often we are talking about infection with bacteria, which is accompanied by purulent inflammation. These may be abscesses, infections on the part of «ear-throat-nose», pyelonephritis, appendicitis, and peritonitis, acute respiratory infections, sepsis as well as severe illness like cholera or scarlet fever. The increase in the concentration of neutrophils can talk about the necrosis of the tissues (not only the withering away of the skin, but also stroke, heart attacks and major burns), poisoning, recent vaccination, Oncology with the collapse.
If lowered neutrophils, it is not a good sign, because it means reducing the number of «struggling» with the infection of cells. The reduction in neutrophils may indicate severe bacterial and viral diseases (in which increases the concentration of lymphocytes and monocytes): on typhus, tularemia, measles, rubella, hepatitis and influenza. Nitropropane may be associated with bone marrow failure or with abnormalities of the blood.
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Eosinophilia and eosinopenia
In addition to bacterial and viral infections, increase the number of eosinophils can also cause helminthic invasions (opisthorchiasis, giardiasis, ascariasis, etc.), autoimmune processes, and allergic reactions. Rarely, eosinophilia is associated with the formation of malignant tumors, skin diseases (fungal ringworm, dermatitis, eczema).
It should be noted that parasitic diseases occur not only in children, so do not deny the possibility of increasing the concentration of eosinophils due to destruction of parasitic worms and an adult patient.
Eosinopenia is associated with irritation of the adrenal cortex after treatment with corticosteroids, involvement of the nervous system after stress. The decrease in the concentration of eosinophils may be associated with conditions following surgical intervention, trauma, and shock. Eosinopenia is often observed during the «midst» of infections, especially severe — dysentery, typhoid, peritonei, diphtheria, etc.; if intoxication, fever, cramps, and cramping pain of any etiology.
Basophilia in practice is not as common. Typically, this condition is associated with rare pathologies: severe blood diseases, chronic inflammation of the digestive organs, hemolytic anemia.
In some cases, the number of basophils is increased as a result of taking some drugs (the estrogen-containing and antithyroid drugs) or allergies.
Monocytosis and monocytopenia
The increase in the number of monocytes is a good sign, it indicates the initial stage of recovery of the organism after acute infectious diseases, influenza, rubella, diphtheria, etc. Monocytosis is also characteristic for tuberculosis and oncological diseases — lymphoma, leukemia.
Monotsitopeniya speaks of severe infectious diseases. In addition, the decrease in the number of monocytes may be associated with prolonged treatment with corticosteroids, anemia and General exhaustion of the body.
Lymphocytosis and lymphocytopenia
In this case a significant role is played by the relative or absolute lymphocytosis is observed in the patient. In the first case, changing only the percentage of lymphocytes to other types of leukocytes, and not always a specific number of cells beyond normal. In the second case, the number of lymphocytes is higher than normal, which is rarer.
Relative lymphocytosis is characteristic of all the pathologies in which the concentration of other varieties of cells decreases, i.e. for purulent diseases, viral infections, fever, paratyphoid, etc.
Absolute lymphocytosis is more common in more severe lesions — whooping cough, rubella, chickenpox, mumps, viral hepatitis, scarlet fever, etc. the Condition may also occur in tuberculosis, malignant tumors, hyperthyroidism (speeding up the development of the thyroid gland of their hormones). If the patient is a significant increase in lymphocytes, it is serious occasion to reflect on the presence of infectious diseases and even severe pathologies.
Lymphocytopenia most frequently observed with treatment with corticosteroids, Prednisolone, with the use of chemotherapy and radiation therapies, as well as after stress. A genetic lack of lymphocytes may occur as a result of AIDS and the syndrome of wiscott-Aldrich syndrome (a genetic disease affecting only boys). If you acquired nature of lymphocytopenia should think about passing tests in immunodeficiency and increasing the number of protein products in the diet.
Remember that properly «read» the results of the blood test can only a qualified technician. Moreover, for the correct interpretation of the reasons for the changes of the leukocytic formula often need advice not a doctor, but several, for example, internist and immunologist. Do not self-medicate, it can be dangerous for your health!