Lymphoma b-cell: what is it?
The term «lymphoma» is a group of neoplastic diseases of the blood, which affects the lymphoid tissue. When b-cell lymphoma pathological process affects b-lymphocytes. This pathology occurs mainly in young and middle age, regardless of gender.
The mechanism of development
B-cell lymphoma is a neoplastic disease. This means that under the influence of various factors disrupted gene In lymphocytes, they acquire malignant properties, begin to multiply rapidly and gradually displace the healthy cells of lymphoid tissue. As any malignant tumor that develops from other body tissues, the tumors are characterized by specific properties, which include:
- Rapid cell division (aggressive growth).
- Tumor cells require more nutrients than healthy cells, which is associated with a higher level of metabolism in them.
- Metastasis – blood and lymph cancer cells can spread to other tissue, it would grow and give rise to secondary tumors.
B-cell tumor, unlike a malignant neoplasm developing from other tissues, has the ability to dissemination – the dissemination of malignant lymphocytes in the blood with the gradual displacement of normal cells. This property is typical of most neoplastic processes of the blood system and bone marrow.
Etiology (cause of development)
The exact cause of a violation of the genome of cells of the lymphoid tissue in this tumor remains unclear. There are a few factors that can provoke development of oncological process, with their impact significantly increases the risk of developing this lymphoma. We are talking about such factors as:
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- Autoimmune diseases – diseases that develop as a result of violations of the functional activity of the immune system with production of antibodies to own tissues (autoimmune diabetes, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis nervous system diffuse type, Sjogren disease with autoimmune skin lesions).
- Transferred manipulation, which consisted in the transplantation of stem cells in the bone marrow, and was also accompanied by the use of drugs pharmacological group of immunosuppressants (drugs that suppress the activity of the immune system).
- Congenital or acquired immunodeficiency (lack of functional activity of any part of the immune system).
- Genetic predisposition – impaired regulation of the activity of dividing lymphocytes (proliferation) can be inherited from defective genes.
- Chronic infectious process in the gastric mucosa, caused by specific bacteria Helicobacter pylori.
- The presence of viral infection in the body, which is the causative agent Epstein-Barr, human papillomavirus or the herpes virus (these viruses integrated into the genome of cells, which over time causes it to change with the gradual development of the cancer process).
- Systematic effects on the body of carcinogens (chemical compounds capable of altering the genetic material of cells), which include benzene and vinyl chloride.
Cases of b-cell lymphoma without identified precipitating factors are also fairly common.
The types of lymphoma
Today there are several types of this tumor in which the neoplastic process may also affect T-lymphocytes. These include:
- Large In-lymphoma is characterized by the appearance of large tumor cells, a significant increase in malignant tumors and its spread (which is why it is also called «diffuse swelling»).
- Anaplastic lymphoma is a tumor with high aggressiveness, rapid growth and the displacement of normal blood cells, is predominantly from T-lymphocytes.
Separately stands out the T-cell lymphoma of the skin, which provokes a chronic inflammatory process caused by fungal, viral or bacterial infection. It is characterized by local increase in cell lymphocytes in the skin.
The main manifestation of neoplastic lesions of the lymphoid tissue is the increase in various groups of lymph nodes in size (cervical, axillary, inguinal). They can be painless and a long time may not cause discomfort in humans. As the progression of the tumor itself with common symptoms of severe weakness, loss of appetite, decline in functional status of the immune system, as well as infiltration of various organs and tissues of neoplastic lymphoid cells, with the development of pain appropriate localization.
Diagnosis and treatment
The main method of diagnosis of cancer is a biopsy, which represents the capture area of the lymphoid tissue with subsequent histological examination. The treatment of this cancer involves chemotherapy using cytotoxic drugs (drugs that suppress the growth and division of tumor cells).
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For the timely identification and effective treatment of this disease at the first sign of his possible development, which is the swollen lymph nodes should see a doctor for research.