Mitral valve prolapse 2nd degree
The mitral valve (MC) is the valve connecting the left atrium and left ventricle. It has two doors, which ensure one-way blood flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle.
When the prolapse of one or both sash SAG back into the left atrium. This happens at each stroke of the heart. Sometimes, if the prolapse occurs the flow of blood in the opposite direction – from the left ventricle into the atrium. This phenomenon is called regurgitation. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the commonest heart defect. This disease is more common in women.
The exact cause is unknown PMK. Most often in people with this disease, it is innate. Observed genetic predisposition to the development of PMK. People with MVP may be the following changes valve:
- The folds of the valve are too thick and large.
- Fold valve and their supporting chords too stretchy, causing them to bend inside the left atrium.
- Increased hole MK.
PMK can develop in people of any age and gender. Some diseases increase the risk of its occurrence:
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- Transferred rheumatic fever.
- Connective tissue disease such as Marfan syndrome.
- Graves ‘ disease (diffuse toxic goiter).
- Scoliosis and other problems with the skeleton.
- Some types of muscular dystrophy.
Signs of prolapse MK
Most people with MVP have no symptoms of the disease. If there are signs a person may experience:
- Palpitations (subjective sensation of heart beats).
- Shortness of breath.
- Fatigue, dizziness and anxiety.
- Discomfort in the chest.
Over time, these symptoms can deteriorate, this is mainly with the development of complications. Complications are rare PMK. Most often they are caused by severe mitral regurgitation. The reverse flow of blood stretches the muscles of the ventricle and the atrium. Over time, this stretching of the myocardium can lead to arrhythmias and increase the risk of infection of the mitral valve (infective endocarditis).
Diagnosis of PMK
Most often doctors find PMK in the normal auscultation of the heart, listening with the aid of phonendoscope distinctive sound called a «click.» Mitral regurgitation may be a systolic murmur. However, for accurate confirmation of the diagnosis requires the use of additional methods of examination.
Echocardiography (EchoCG) is the most commonly used method for the diagnosis of PMK. Echocardiography shows the size and shape of the heart chambers and their functioning. With its help it is possible to detect myocardium that are poorly reduced. Echocardiography can detect PMK, to determine the presence and degree of mitral regurgitation. Part of the Echo is Doppler study, which can be used to determine the speed and direction of blood flow through MC.
According to EchoCG establish the severity of prolapse:
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- PMK of 1 degree – fold valve curved to the left atrium of 3 – 6 mm.
- PMK 2 degree – fold valve curved to the left atrium 6 – 9 mm.
- PMK of 1 degree – fold valve curved to the left atrium in 9 mm and more.
In addition to Echocardiography for the diagnosis of PMK apply:
- Chest x-ray, which can detect enlargement of the heart.
- Electrocardiography is a simple examination that records the electrical activity of the heart. Using the ECG to determine the frequency of heart contractions and the character of its rhythm.
Most people with MVP don’t need treatment unless they have symptoms or complications of the disease. Even with the presence of symptoms does not always need treatment because their presence is not a direct indication of the severity of mitral regurgitation. The goals of treatment include PMK:
- If necessary – correction of problems with the mitral valve.
- Prevention of infective endocarditis, arrhythmias and other complications.
- The relief of symptoms.
For the treatment of palpitation and discomfort in the chest used drugs called beta-blockers, subject to minor mitral regurgitation. In marked reverse flow of blood, the doctor may prescribe:
- Krovanistaya drugs – to reduce the risk of blood clots in the presence of arrhythmias.
- Digoxin to strengthen the heart’s contractions.
- Diuretics (diuretic drugs) for excretion of excess sodium and fluid.
- Antiarrhythmic drugs (Flecainide, Procainamide) is to control the rhythm of heartbeats.
- Drugs that expand blood vessels (Isosorbide, Hydralazine) – to reduce the load on the heart.
Take all the recommended medicines regularly according to the prescription of doctor.
The operation is performed only in severe pathology of the mitral valve. The goal of surgical treatment is to improve symptoms and reduce the risk of development of heart failure. Usually is plastic or prosthetics MK.