Mitral valve prolapse: what it is, how dangerous, treatment
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common version of a heart valve defect, which in most cases is not dangerous for life and not prevent a person to work and to play sports. However, the proportion of patients with this disease still are at high risk of developing serious complications – heart failure, further pathological changes of the valves mitral valve, arrhythmias.
The mitral valve and its functions
The left heart (ventricle and atrium) are limited from each other by the mitral valve that has two leaves, so the valve is also called bicuspid. In normal, when the left ventricle and eject blood into the aorta, this valve is tightly closed. Thus warned return (regurgitation) of blood into the Atria and saved the correct blood flow in the heart, which is necessary for the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system.
Prolapse: what is it?
The term «prolapse» refers to the sagging or bulging. In the case of mitral valve prolapse protrude the flaps to the side of the left atrium, and it happens during contractions of the homonymous ventricle. Accordingly, the valve is closed non-watertight, which in a systole a small portion of blood back into the atrium. Found mitral valve prolapse heart primarily among young women, and detect the pathology more often by accident – patients rarely make any complaints.
Mitral prolapse can be primary and secondary. Primary PMK in patients with normal well-being, in the absence of any symptoms disorders of the heart doctors tend not to consider as a pathology. The reasons for the development of this form of prolapse may be:
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- Congenital connective tissue dysplasia.
Primary PMK is most often discovered in childhood and requires dynamic monitoring of the child. Secondary PMK, which is much rarer – it is always the result of a pathological process occurring in the heart. The occurrence of prolapse of bicuspid valve is possible due to the following reasons:
- Coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction.
- Systemic diseases (such as lupus erythematosus).
- Dysfunction of the papillary muscles (muscles that fix the folds of the valves between the ventricles and the Atria).
The clinical picture
The clinical manifestations of the double valve prolapse with slight regurgitation of blood usually is not, therefore, in such patients, the defect is detected by chance during auscultation (listening) of the heart and Echocardiography. If the sash SAG much, increasing the return flow of blood into the Atria, patients show various symptoms of illness: chest pain, sensations of the stops or Vice versa rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, etc. in Addition, patients with primary PMK quite often develop disorders of the autonomic nervous system, impaired thermoregulation (permanently increased body temperature), lowered immune defense of the body.
In addition, because the primary PMK, in most cases, occurs due to improper development of the connective tissue in children with this disorder may be signs of hip dysplasia, flat feet, hernias of different localization and asthenic physique. Therefore, when such characteristics of the organism, it is desirable to examine the heart of a child. As for the secondary PMK, it usually has more pronounced clinical manifestations, which are partly due to the underlying disease.
PMK chief method of diagnosis is ultrasound of the heart (Echocardiography). ECG to identify this pathology is difficult, but can be detected quite frequent complications of the arrhythmia. According to the results of Echocardiography establish the degree of PMK:
- when the first protrusion of the valves is not more than 5 mm;
- in the second – 5 – 10 mm;
- with the third – more than 10 mm.
How dangerous is mitral valve prolapse?
In most cases the PMK to proceed favorably, and only 2 – 4% of patients may develop serious complications:
- insufficiency of the mitral valve;
- infective endocarditis;
- life-threatening arrhythmias;
- sudden death (mainly associated with the occurrence of severe arrhythmia).
How to treat mitral valve prolapse?
Tactics of treatment of patients with primary PMK is determined by the degree of protrusion of the mitral valves, as well as the nature of cardiac and autonomic disorders. In mild cases treatment is not carried out, patients are recommended to undergo annual examination by a cardiologist and be sure to monitor their health – have a rest, eat right, not smoke or abuse alcohol, to control their emotional state. If the patient has autonomic dysfunction is detected, it shows a pharmacological and psychological therapy. Apply the following medications:
- sedatives (begin with a vegetable, if they don’t work, resort to more serious treatment);
- wegetotropona means;
- tonic preparations and vitamins.
To improve metabolism in the myocardium and prevent the development of arrhythmias appoint Panangin, Riboxin, magnesium preparations and other means. If patients complain of pain in the heart, and they manifest arrhythmias on the ECG, there is active cardiological treatment.
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In severe cases of mitral prolapse treated surgically: conduct plikiu the valve leaflets, create artificial chord, replace the valve, etc.
In secondary PMK, in addition to discovered the valvular defect, it is necessary to treat the underlying disease, to deformity of the valve has not progressed.
Sports for PMK
The question of whether sport is contraindicated in patients with PMC, is decided individually in each case. The doctor evaluates the patient’s condition and how his body adapts to physical stress. In the absence of signs of impaired heart function, exercise is not contraindicated (but it is better to choose something that is not related to the jerky movements, jumps, kicks, heavy lifting). It is recommended that swimming, running, Cycling, etc.
With the development of complications of disease any physical activity should be limited.