Multiple sclerosis: first signs, symptoms, photo
One of the neurological diseases that occur with the destruction of nerve fibers myelin is multiple sclerosis. This pathology difficult to diagnose and, unfortunately, completely cured. This article explains what multiple sclerosis is indicated by its etiology, clinical manifestations and principles of treatment.
For the disease characterized by multifocal lesions of the white matter of the CNS. Sometimes in the pathological process involved and the peripheral nervous system. As a rule, there is an undulating course with gradual progression. Diagnosed the specified disease among young people aged 15 – 40 years. Women suffer more often than men. The basis of pathology lies the destruction of the immune cells of the myelin sheath, which ensures the normal passage of nerve impulses. This pathological process is irreversible, therefore, multiple sclerosis ranks 2nd (after trauma) causes of disability of young people.
Among the main reasons for the development of this type of multiple sclerosis secrete malfunction of the immune system when its cells are disrupted nerve structures. Etiological factor that leads to disease, not clearly established, however, we can identify factors that increase the likelihood of its development:
- the influence of herpes viruses, rubella, retroviruses;
- bacterial infection;
- chronic intoxication (especially the effect of various chemicals and gasoline);
- features power supply (when in childhood, excessive use of salt and foods of animal origin);
- constant stress;
- physical overload;
- long-term use of oral contraceptives;
- a deficiency of vitamin D.
In addition, the causes of the disease include genetic predisposition. Thus, the presence of sclerosis in the family increases the likelihood of the same CNS among close relatives 3 – 10%.
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The disease progresses gradually. The symptoms appear when almost 50% of nerve fibers involved in the pathological process. The first signs of multiple sclerosis can include the following violations:
- numbness or tingling, periodic unilateral weakness of the limbs;
- blurred vision or transient blindness, oculomotor disturbances in the form of strabismus, diplopia, nystagmus;
- pelvic disorders that are registered, almost half of patients; nocturia, insufficient bladder emptying, urinary incontinence and sudden urge;
- chronic fatigue.
The initial stage of the disease can also manifest inflammation of the facial nerve, ataxia, decreased blood pressure and dizziness. With the progression of the nerve fibers of the symptoms of the disease include the following:
- Change the sensitivity in the form of itching, burning, numbness, or tingling. Such feelings at first are localized in the distal, but gradually spread to the entire limb. Generally, one-sided defeat. Over time the patient becomes difficult to make any movement.
- Vision changes and reduction of its severity, disturbance of color vision, diplopia.
- Tremor of the extremities due to involuntary muscle contractions.
- Impaired swallowing.
- Speech disorder (it is stiff and vague).
- Violation walk because of tremors, vertigo, muscle weakness or numbness of the feet.
- Increased sensitivity to heat (overheating of the body leads to increased exposure, so patients should avoid prolonged stay on the beach, in the sauna, etc.).
- Chronic fatigue, which is most pronounced in the second half of the day. Observed drowsiness, excessive fatigue and emotional exhaustion.
- Changes in the sexual sphere, manifested by decreased libido, erectile dysfunction and allocation of sperm in men. In women may be reduced sensitivity in the genital area and experience pain during sexual intercourse.
- Deterioration night’s sleep.
- Changes in the ANS, which include muscle weakness, arterial hypotension and arrhythmia, hyperhidrosis of the feet.
- Bad mood (depression or anxiety).
- Dysfunction of urination and defecation.
In a separate clinical cases are special symptoms of multiple sclerosis. These include paroxysmal attacks of ataxia, dysarthria, seizures, and parasthesia mioclonii. The patient during the seizure remains conscious and is no EEG seizure activity (specific characteristic that differentiates the paroxysms on the background of multiple sclerosis and the seizures of an epileptic nature). Can also develop acute psychosis. 2 – 10% of patients show acute transverse myelitis. To determine its nature and exclusion of post-infectious or post-vaccinal damage of the white matter of patients getting an MRI.
In the later stages of illness, patients recorded respiratory disorders. Changing the depth and rhythm of respiration, there is shortness of breath, difficulty in coughing, shortness of breath and continuous hiccups. Such manifestations are associated with weakness of the muscles involved in the respiratory cycle and promote normal breathing. In addition, the changes of respiration may be determined by drugs used for the symptomatic treatment (e.g., when taking muscle relaxants, tranquilizers, some analgesics).
In the case of heavy flow are logged sclerosis complex pneumonia, disability and massive bed sores as the result of immobilization of the patient, disorders of respiratory function and cardiac activity, which can lead to death. As can be seen from the above information, the clinical course of multiple sclerosis – polymorphic. This greatly complicates diagnosis and timely therapy.