Myocardial infarction: causes
Despite all the efforts of medicine, cardiovascular diseases are still leading causes of death in the adult population in Russia. One of the acute conditions that can lead to death myocardial infarction. What is his reason, and whether you can protect yourself from the sad scenario?
What is a heart attack?
Myocardial infarction is the cessation of blood supply to the portion of the heart muscles due to blockage of one of the coronary arteries. An untrained person three major arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. Their small branches are not sufficient to provide oxygen and nutrients to the myocardial tissue if a large artery breaks down. For about half an hour after the cessation of blood flow to the muscle can still be saved, and then the tissue is irretrievably lost, and begins the formation of the scar.
In the result, the heart muscle is reduced, not completely, drops the force with which the heart ejects blood. The more affected area, the higher the risk of this condition for life. Even if the heart attack was successfully treated, it requires long rehabilitation and correction lifestyle.
Atherosclerosis – the main enemy vessels
The main cause of myocardial infarction, as well as many other vascular diseases is atherosclerosis. In connection with the violation of metabolism on the inner walls of blood vessels are formed atherosclerotic plaques. They gradually grow, eventually blocking the lumen of the vessel almost completely. When the shell of the plaque bursts, in this place formed a blood clot – it blocks the vessel completely, stopping the blood supply to the tissues. Then there is the main symptom of a heart attack – pain.
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In addition to the main causes of myocardial infarction and secrete factors that increase the probability of vascular problems.
- Male. Myocardial infarction is most common among men 40 to 60 years, which is associated with the level of androgens. Women before menopause are protected from atherosclerosis high levels of estrogen. According to statistics, after 50 years, the number of heart attacks among women increases dramatically.
- Genetic predisposition. If immediate family (parents, grandparents, siblings) had heart attacks, strokes, atherosclerosis of vessels of lower extremities, the risk of have vascular problems above.
- Hypercholesterolemia – increased cholesterol levels in the blood. The Central part of the atherosclerotic plaque is composed almost entirely of cholesterol. The higher the level, the faster growing plaque. It is necessary to maintain blood lipids within normal limits with a special diet. The correct diet to extend active life for years to come.
- A sedentary lifestyle leads to excess weight and increased blood cholesterol. Regular trainings allow you to develop the so-called collateral circulation – hundreds of small intertwining between vessels, able to fill the shortage of blood flow through the basilar artery.
- Smoking. A systematic flow of nicotine into the body makes the vascular wall of dense, inelastic, and incapable of stretching. There is a marked narrowing of the small blood vessels.
- High blood pressure. Prolonged increase in blood pressure also causes changes in the vascular wall, the decrease of its elasticity, susceptibility to atherosclerosis.
- Diabetes type II diabetes along with overweight, hypertension and increased cholesterol is a vicious cycle in the metabolism of metabolic syndrome. Launched without a proper diet and treatment, it inevitably leads to «vascular accidents» – myocardial infarction or acute cerebrovascular accident (CVA, stroke).
- Diseases associated with increased clotting of the blood.
- It is noted the relationship of the number of heart attacks with weather changes – often tragedies occur during the sweltering summer heat and magnetic storms.
Thus, the main cause of myocardial infarction lies in the irrational nutrition and sedentary lifestyle. Without proper food and behavioral habits of people over many years acquires metabolic disorders. If you take it a rule to consume plenty of vegetables and fruits, to abandon the excess fatty and fried foods, to adhere to the rational physical exertion and to say goodbye to nicotine addiction, you can save yourself from the risk of heart attack or at least push back the vascular disaster for several years.