Myocardial infarction: what it is, stage, photos

Myocardial infarction is one of the leading positions among the causes of mortality of the population of the planet. According to statistics of the world health organization, from heart attack kills more people than cancer, infectious diseases and car accidents. This disease is so insidious that it can serve symptoms, and only at the autopsy the doctors determined that it is.

The cause of the heart attack

A heart attack is a direct consequence of ischemic heart disease. The arteries that carry oxygen to the heart muscle, suffering from education on their walls specific deposits – atherosclerotic plaques. When you minimize blood due to a sharp spasm, the formation of a blood clot – a blood clot, which closes the lumen of any vessel of the heart. Primarily in this case, suffers cardiac muscle, which is without adequate nutrition. From the process of muscle respiration can «turn off» large portions, which means a massive heart attack.

Heart immediately reacts to this situation rapid heartbeat and hormonal release. In some cases pain may be absent because of the inclusion of compensatory processes. Thus, the body tries to rebuild their livelihoods. But in most cases, patients feel sharp pain behind the breastbone in the region of the heart. The pain may radiate to the left arm, in the ribs, in the area of the lower jaw. Starts breathing problems, patients panic. Some patients can die from pain shock.

The pathogenesis is growing rapidly. Areas of heart muscle that is not receiving oxygen quickly necrotizing. In some cases, develops so-called large-focal or transmural infarction, affecting all heart layers. The patient with myocardial infarction need for emergency assistance, since by the rule of «Golden hour» that after this time, irreversible changes:

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  • pulmonary edema;
  • failure of the cardiac rhythm;
  • the inflammation of the heart bag;
  • re-infarction;
  • the rupture of the organ.

Cardiogenic shock threatens patient disability and death. As the results of a research, seventy percent of the patients infarction die in the first days after the attack, because of delays in the provision of medical care. But with timely resuscitation, removal of thrombus and restoration of blood flow in the affected area may return the patient to normal life.

A small heart attack may not give the expressed symptoms, and dead areas, meanwhile replaced by connective tissue. Heart appear kind of scars that no longer serve the function of cardiomyocytes. Find the scar at preventive check-UPS not related to the complaints of the patients at heart. Though the appearance of scarring and preserves the life of the patient, however, significantly impairs the functioning of the heart. The body becomes less elastic, worse is adapting to the loads. Patients at risk of secondary infarction, arrhythmia and angina, and other pathologies of the cardiovascular system.

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Risk factors

Most often the myocardial infarction happens in men older than forty years. The female body is trying to stay in shape due to hormones, so until menopause (approximately forty-five to fifty years) heart attack in women rarely occurs. And in the age of patients older than fifty years, the body accumulates enough negative potential to trigger a sharp pathological change. Found disease and among young people.
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Not the last place in the development of heart attack is a physical illness – diabetes, hypertension, lupus, atherosclerotic changes of vessels and hypertrophy of the heart muscle. Such changes become an additional factor that increases the risk of myocardial infarction. The causes of heart attack include Smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, the presence of overweight the victim, physical inactivity, elevated levels of adrenaline and heredity.

Symptoms of a heart attack

Medicine and custom parts classic symptoms of myocardial infarction. The classic symptoms include sharp pain in the heart, oppressive feeling in the chest, Radiomania pain in the heart, arm, shoulder blade, ribs. The patient feels lack of oxygen, unusual heartbeat, speech, cold sweat on his forehead, his temples. Usually, patients taking Nitroglycerin is the most affordable and effective remedy for heart pain but a marked improvement does not occur.

In other cases, the symptoms of myocardial infarction is able to take forms of other diseases. Depending on this, there is the classification of atypical forms. For example, when abdominal form, the patient will not complain of heart, his first thoughts will be about the appendicitis, acute pancreatitis or stomach ulcers – so much the symptoms of a heart attack are similar to signs of these diseases. Along the way added such unpleasant factors as vomiting, hiccup or burp.
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When asthma the form of myocardial infarction is very similar to bronchial asthma. Patients felt failures in the breath, which is all the time increasing, and the lack of air almost palpable. Any medications or inhalation does not bring relief.
Cerebral form of myocardial infarction shows brain lesions that were later confirmed on the CT scan.

While atypical form of myocardial infarction signs of disease are manifested in a most surprising form – like a toothache, like a pinched nerve and other pathology. A heart attack without any harbingers of misfortune can happen on a background of diabetes or as a complication of a severe emotional strain. According to another classification of the disease it is divided into zones, for example, myocardial infarction, posterior wall of left ventricle, infarction of the anterior wall, myocardial infarction of right ventricle, etc.

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Diagnosis of heart attack

Although diagnosing a heart attack is a hundred percent possible only in a hospital after conducting electrocardiogram, but at the first signs can largely predict what happened with the patient. After admission to a medical institution the patient is doing basic tests – an EKG and a blood test that shows the appearance of cardiomyocytes (cell markers). After receiving the electrocardiogram, the doctors can calculate how long ago the attack occurred and determine the stage of a heart attack. If physicians have the opportunity to do an ECG in the first half hour after the attack, on the ribbon will mark the upper subendocardialnah ischemia with a sharp selection of the positive prong, Etc
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In the first stage, which lasts from a couple hours to several days, we can talk about the damage of muscle fibers due to acute coronary insufficiency. Acute stroke will last several weeks and can occur after the first attacks. At this time one of the muscle fibers nekrotizirutee and the other is recovering. In subacute stage, clearly define which cardiac cells will eventually die and which recover.

As a rule, to assess the heart damage after a heart attack is possible only with the subacute stage. The last stage of the myocardial infarction scar. The name speaks for itself – during this stage the cardiac muscle be scars, replaces dead cells, but not performing their function. In this stage, the disease remains, by accompanying the patient’s life.

First aid

If you suspect a heart attack, aid must be started immediately. The patient is seated comfortably, unbuttoning the tight stuff – collars, belt and ensure supply of fresh air. Under the tongue put a tablet of Nitroglycerin, and to relieve pain and panic recommended forty drops Korvalola.

A must in this situation, call medical teams, which hospitalitynet of the patient and will be able to make the necessary resuscitation. If the number of doctors and patient has no signs of life, others have their own to begin chest compressions and breathing mouth-to-mouth and continue the resuscitation until the arrival of medical teams.

Treatment of myocardial infarction

Therapy of heart attack is not limited to relief of pain attack. Much more important to restore circulation to the heart muscle and prevent early complications. To fight blood clots can assign a large dose of aspirin, and if no effect is carried out thrombolysis. The main goal is the destruction of the integrity of the blood clot and restore patency of the vessel, the establishment of the blood supply to the damaged area. If the blood vessels of the patient have pathologically narrowed or atherosclerotic plaques, thrombolytic therapy does not produce results is shown surgical intervention – angioplasty or stenting of vessels.

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To expand the lumen of the vessels used cylinders, which increase the diameter of the vessel, smoothing it. If the forecast of such treatment gives little chance to the disappearance of problems, resort to more radical method – the replacement of the affected area own healthy vessel. Does this vessel from another part of the body, and then implanted into the problem area. Through a healthy vessel creates a new branch of blood flow, which assumes the function of damaged area. The consequences of such a treatment is quite optimistic.

Rehabilitation of patients infarction

People who have had a myocardial infarction should be observed at the cardiologist. It is possible to issue a disability – give it or not depends on each individual case, but to try to pass a special Commission should. This depends largely on the quality of life of the patient.

The process of scarring after myocardial infarction may take up to six months or more, and all this time the patient’s condition must be monitored. Patient prohibited heavy physical exertion, stress, excessive meals, bad habits. Since then, the patient it is important to control how much pressure it in the morning and in the evening and mark the lower and upper limit.

For individual treatment of the patient advise the nurse that assigns a feasible physical activity for such a patient. Useful psychological stress training, fresh air, diet. The doctor will explain what you can eat and what foods are strictly prohibited (in particular alcohol). Possibly a Spa treatment.