Myocardial ischemia: what is it?

The term «ischemia» is used to determine the state in which the body or part of the body receives insufficient amount of oxygen is the so-called hypoxia (oxygen starvation). Myocardial ischemia is hypoxia of the heart muscle. It may occur as a result of number of reasons and could be the beginning of serious diseases, e.g. myocardial infarction. Long-existing ischemia becomes chronic – ischemic heart disease that requires serious treatment.

Ischemia of the myocardium. What is it? Learn more about the mechanisms of its origin

Despite the fact that the heart constantly has direct contact with blood, it receives oxygen and nutrients from it. Due to the fact that inside of the heart is covered with the endocardium, the inner sheath, preventing the absorption of blood in the heart. The myocardium (heart muscle) is working around the clock, and need energy it is very large. Ensures the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle is a unique artery – coronary, which wrap around the heart from all sides. The importance of these arteries is very great, as the work of the heart depends on the health of the whole organism. That is why myocardial ischemia can disrupt the functions of many internal organs.

Why may occur with myocardial ischemia?

  • Atherosclerosis and blockage of the coronary arteries cholesterol plaque. Each of the coronary arteries to nourish a certain area of the heart muscle, so the blockage of one of the vessels in one section of the myocardium is left without power.
  • The lack of potassium in the body. With hypokalemia in the cells of the myocardium becomes more sodium and fluid that leads to swelling of tissues. Swollen cell is not able to fully take the nutrients and function properly.
  • Spasm of the coronary arteries during Smoking, abuse of oxygen, frequent stress and hypertension.
  • Blockage of the coronary arteries by a blood clot.
  • Endocrine diseases (obesity, diabetes).
  • Sedentary lifestyle or excessive exercise. Both deprive the vascular wall elasticity, making it difficult to maintain adequate vascular tone.
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The types of myocardial ischemia

  • Painless form of ischemia is a type of ischemic heart disease, which has characteristic manifestations in laboratory and instrumental study of the heart (ECG, Ajax). A distinctive feature is the absence of pain or other symptoms of ischemia (shortness of breath, abnormal heart rhythm and other things). Also, this type occurs in patients with impaired pain sensitivity or have myocardial infarction.
  • Acute coronary death is myocardial ischemia, which led to cardiac arrest and death of the patient. Occurs when blockage of one of the main branches of the coronary arteries.
  • Angina is intermittent myocardial ischemia, the attack which is accompanied by sharp pain behind the sternum, sensation of heat in the chest, rapid pulse and shortness of breath.
  • Myocardial infarction is the acute ischemia of the myocardium, which led to the death of the heart muscle and the loss of her job.
  • Cardiosclerosis is complicated by the form of ischemia, when the oxygen-starved part of the myocardium is replaced by connective (scar) tissue, which cannot perform their function.
  • The types of ischemia on ECG

    • The upper subendocardialnah ischemia – affected area is situated under the internal membrane of the heart (endocardium).
    • Subepicardial ischemia – affected area of the muscle located under the outer membrane (epicardium). Depending on the localization of this disease is divided into the ischemia of the lower region of the myocardium, the posterior wall of the myocardium or septum of the ventricles.
    • Transmural ischemia – lesion of all layers of the myocardium.

    Treatment and prevention of myocardial ischemia

    The treatment depends on the cause, which caused starvation of the heart. It includes the following steps:

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  • The rejection of bad habits, which leads to narrowing of blood vessels (from Smoking, alcohol abuse).
  • Restricted diet cholesterol or taking medications that reduce cholesterol (statins).
  • Treatment of comorbidities – hypertension, diabetes, obesity.
  • Adequate physical activity. The volume of the loads must be chosen taking into account the patient’s weight and parameters of blood pressure. Sometimes sports is contraindicated for people with obesity.
  • Restoration of mineral balance in the lack of potassium in the blood through diet or preparations of potassium (Panangin).
  • Blood thinners to prevent thrombosis. Is achieved diet, drinking establishment mode or receiving antiplatelet agents.