Myocardial ischemia: what is it?
The term «ischemia» is used to determine the state in which the body or part of the body receives insufficient amount of oxygen is the so-called hypoxia (oxygen starvation). Myocardial ischemia is hypoxia of the heart muscle. It may occur as a result of number of reasons and could be the beginning of serious diseases, e.g. myocardial infarction. Long-existing ischemia becomes chronic – ischemic heart disease that requires serious treatment.
Ischemia of the myocardium. What is it? Learn more about the mechanisms of its origin
Despite the fact that the heart constantly has direct contact with blood, it receives oxygen and nutrients from it. Due to the fact that inside of the heart is covered with the endocardium, the inner sheath, preventing the absorption of blood in the heart. The myocardium (heart muscle) is working around the clock, and need energy it is very large. Ensures the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle is a unique artery – coronary, which wrap around the heart from all sides. The importance of these arteries is very great, as the work of the heart depends on the health of the whole organism. That is why myocardial ischemia can disrupt the functions of many internal organs.
Why may occur with myocardial ischemia?
- Atherosclerosis and blockage of the coronary arteries cholesterol plaque. Each of the coronary arteries to nourish a certain area of the heart muscle, so the blockage of one of the vessels in one section of the myocardium is left without power.
- The lack of potassium in the body. With hypokalemia in the cells of the myocardium becomes more sodium and fluid that leads to swelling of tissues. Swollen cell is not able to fully take the nutrients and function properly.
- Spasm of the coronary arteries during Smoking, abuse of oxygen, frequent stress and hypertension.
- Blockage of the coronary arteries by a blood clot.
- Endocrine diseases (obesity, diabetes).
- Sedentary lifestyle or excessive exercise. Both deprive the vascular wall elasticity, making it difficult to maintain adequate vascular tone.
The types of myocardial ischemia
The types of ischemia on ECG
- The upper subendocardialnah ischemia – affected area is situated under the internal membrane of the heart (endocardium).
- Subepicardial ischemia – affected area of the muscle located under the outer membrane (epicardium). Depending on the localization of this disease is divided into the ischemia of the lower region of the myocardium, the posterior wall of the myocardium or septum of the ventricles.
- Transmural ischemia – lesion of all layers of the myocardium.
Treatment and prevention of myocardial ischemia
The treatment depends on the cause, which caused starvation of the heart. It includes the following steps:
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