Myocardial: what is it, symptoms and treatment

Called a myocardial damage to the heart muscle. This disease is secondary, i.e. it does not occur «by itself», and compared to other pathologies. Usually myocardial is associated with impaired metabolism in the heart and leads to heart failure. The disease reduces the ability of the body normally be reduced, which leads to pathological changes in the body.

Myocardial: what is it?

Primarily, this indicates pathology in some disorders that affect vessels, krovenapolnenia heart and carrying him oxygen. The inflow of necessary substances decreases, which myocytes (cells in the heart muscle) suffer from hypoxia (oxygen starvation). When fast current and progressive myocardiodystrophy of the myocardium may start to atrophy — this leads to necrosis of heart tissue and the development of heart failure. Up to a point this process is reversible.

The stage of the disease

To understand the process of irreversible disorders in the myocardium need to understand the stages of progression of myocardiodystrophy. In the first stage, the heart attempts to compensate the lack of circulation. Quite understandable, this is accompanied by pain behind the breastbone that occurs regardless of exercise. Person is difficult to tolerate any load, it’s hard for him to breathe. Objectively, these changes did not occur, and they will not notice in the diagnostic process.

In the second stage mechanisms to compensate for the lack of blood depleted, the heart becomes unable to compensate for impaired functions. Shortness of breath during exercise, irregular pulse, edema in the lower extremities at the end of the day — the most typical symptoms of the second stage. ECG shows the first noticeable change, however, they are atypical, so they can be observed in other pathologies.

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The third stage is characterized by the development of heart failure according to the exchange type. The patient feels pain in the heart, the same shortness of breath (but now it does not disappear even in a resting state) and persistent swelling of the legs. Diagnostics clearly shows the pathological changes, but they are still atypical.

Symptoms

The main manifestations of myocardiodystrophy, in addition to the above, at different stages include:

  • severe fatigue and weakness;
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  • drowsiness;
  • a moderate increase or decrease (depending on the presence of comorbidities) heart rate;
  • increase or decrease in blood pressure, especially the upper and pulse;
  • the increase in heart size;
  • heart murmur;
  • tingling in the chest, sometimes radiating to the left side, shoulder or arm;
  • constant thirst;
  • nervousness;
  • dizziness;
  • causeless loss of weight, etc.

Diagnosis

As already mentioned, in the initial stages the myocardial does not manifest itself. With this and related difficulties in diagnosis of the disease. However, detection of pathological changes in some survey methods are used. ECG is the most effective way of helping to determine the presence of irregularities in the properties of myocytes. Doppler examination, which is similar in its essence with ECG, to detect possible causes (heart disease, chronic heart failure) myocardiodystrophy. It displays a reduction of the pressure in arteries and veins, heart chambers, as well as improper operation of the valves.

Ultrasound examination is usually inefficient, it is used only in the last stages of the disease. The method allows to detect dysfunction of the myocardium, its swelling, thickening of the walls of the ventricles of the heart. If change of systolic and diastolic functions of the body, these disease is also visible on the ultrasound results.

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MRI is necessary for diagnosis of lesions of the heart muscle as focal and diffuse. Imaging also indicates an irregular increase in the thickness of the walls of the body, which is typical for the first stage of the disease, or thinning, which occurs in the later stages. The method is shown to determine the size of the heart in a possible increase in its chambers and whole body in General.

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Radiological methods of examination reveal the decrease in heart rate, enlarged heart on the left side and the stagnation of blood in the lungs (caused due to overflow of vessels with blood from critically ill patients). General blood and urine are usually not effective. Resorted to them only to assess the General condition of the patient and in cases where the myocardial may be associated with anemia (anemia).

Treatment

The goal of therapy is to vosstanovlenie metabolic processes, the elimination of the causes of disease and improving the supply of oxygen to the heart. This is usually used conservative treatment methods. Beta-blockers (these include, for example, Inderal), reduce the load on the myocardium and decrease heart rate. Means for stimulating metabolic processes are used because of the need to improve metabolism, cellular respiration, and filling the heart with oxygen. These drugs reduce the intensity of pain behind the breastbone.

Medications are used to prevent the blood clotting. It is necessary to expand coronary arteries, improve blood circulation in the heart muscle. In addition, a number of this group of drugs has a positive effect on the course of redox processes in the heart and its oxygen saturation. Drugs of certain chemical elements (potassium, magnesium, calcium) required for the normalization of electrolyte balance, improve the cardiac conduction system and recovery of myocytes after an illness.

Remember that all of the above medicines can be applied only to destination the doctor-the cardiologist. Self harmful to your health!