Nose often bleeding: cause

Nosebleeds – perhaps, one of the most familiar to everyone since childhood events. However, it always happens at the wrong time. If there are certain reasons for such a «surprise», and episodes of nasal hemorrhage are rare (say once per few years), reason for obvious concern. And in what diseases having frequent nosebleeds?

First of all, despite the apparent simplicity of the question, we need to give a definition: epistaxis is the process of flowing of blood out through the nostrils or numb her mouth from the nasopharynx. This process occurs for two reasons:

  • in violation of the integrity of the vascular wall (for example, during a blow on the nose);
  • when prepodavanii the liquid portion of blood outwardly through entire vessel – this reason is related to the violation of permeability of vascular wall.

Classification of types of nasal bleeding

Before the result of the cause of bleeding, you need to talk about two types of bleeding, differentiated depending on the localization of the source:

  • An overwhelming number of bleeding arises from Kiselevoj zone – region of the anterior nasal septum, which is a «tangle» of small arterioles and capillaries. This rich network is needed for effective warming of cold air in the winter. Bleeding from this area represents the normal expiry of the drops and the number of steps (horizontal position, a cold compress on the bridge of his nose) just stops.
  • Much more dangerous back bleeding, in which bleeding from the nose often runs and gets in the nose, and then swallows. Its danger lies in the fact that in this case, the caliber of the damaged vessels much larger. Bleeding is heavier, and harder to stop him. If the back bleeding also occurs through the nostrils, often it resembles a «stream», which is very difficult to stop even in the face of ENT hospital.
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«Delayed» symptoms of severe posterior bleeding can be vomiting blood, in which a modified gastric juice resembles blood «coffee grounds». After a few hours it can occur black stools (melena), resembling tar, which indicates that bleeding into the intestines. If you notice these symptoms, then you need to be hospitalized until she’s already showing signs of massive blood loss: frequent, weak, thready pulse, low pressure drop, paleness, cold and sticky sweat.

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Causes of nasal bleeding

Why bleeding from the nose? As an adult, and the teenager a lot of reasons, and to group them according to various criteria (e.g., causes the front and rear of bleeding or causes of minor and major bleeding), it is best to focus on that classification, which will help to inform the doctor the necessary information. This classification involves the separation causes bleeding, local and systemic. Local causes include problems that have arisen in the place of hemorrhage. These include:

  • injuries and blows to the nose;
  • the growth of polyps in the region of the turbinates with subsequent trauma (even with the «finger picking»);
  • low humidity in the surrounding air, contributing to the drying of the mucous membrane, which is easier injured;
  • the reaction on aerosols, inhalation of caustic gases, vapors or fumes;
  • foreign body in the nose; these include the accumulation of dry crusts of nasal mucus that when you try to «get the finger» to result in injury, causing bleeding;
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  • bleeding perhaps as a consequence of surgical operations, for example, on the nasal septum because of its curvature; typically, this can occur in the first day after surgery;
  • with a strong and severe allergic rhinitis, if pronounced swelling of the mucous membranes;
  • when an individual features a close arrangement of the vessels from the surface, depending on the depth in the submucosal layer;
  • in congenital vascular tumors – benign hemangioma;
  • in malignant tumors of the facial skull and of the nasal septum, and soft tissues in the final stage – the germination of blood vessels; this causes massive, profuse bleeding, but in connection with the development of medicine and diagnostic imaging tools such currently is not found.
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Why is the blood flowing in those cases, when the nasal septum «and»? These reasons are referred to the system, and in this case, the bleeding may be a symptom of the disease. Most frequently to the nasal hemorrhages lead following States:

  • hypertensive heart disease in General, and as a hypertensive crisis in particular;
  • a disease characterized by a decrease in the coagulation ability of the blood – hemorrhagic diathesis;
  • polycythemia Vera, or erythremia disease Wekesa (this disease can occur as thrombotic States, and bleeding);
  • infection with tropism (affinity agents) to the mucous membrane; examples include influenza, adenoviral infection and colds;
  • a nosebleed may be a manifestation of overheating, stay in the stifling atmosphere, the result of sunstroke;
  • lack of vitamin C causes fragility and brittleness of blood vessels, so when spring beriberi may occur bleeding gums and nasal hemorrhage, especially in people with weakened;
  • diseases of the liver, system blood diseases, side effects of medications;
  • abrupt changes in ambient atmospheric pressure; usually this symptom occurs in pilots, divers or acclimatization in the highlands.

As you can see, the reasons for nose hemorrhage abound. Even pregnancy and just long-term use of alcohol can serve their causes. Therefore, if this simple but unpleasant symptom was of concern, you need to see a therapist and ENT doctor. These specialists can find the cause and take all measures to its elimination.