Ocular migraines: symptoms and treatment

Migraine is familiar to many through their own experiences or complaints of other people disease. But ocular migraine is rarely heard, although it also occurs frequently, but patients mistakenly believe that they have impaired vision, but not a migraine.

Ocular migraine (or absolute scotoma) is an acute disturbance of vision associated with disorder of the blood supply to certain areas of the brain (pathways to the optic nerve, occipital cortex region, etc.). In this pathology, patients lost the picture on the same areas of the field of vision in both eyes and flicker appears.

Causes of eye migraines

The main cause of this disease is the pathological changes in the blood vessels of the brain. Such changes occur primarily in the autonomic disorders, so vegetative-vascular dystonia is quite often accompanied by atrial scotoma. Factors that provoke the emergence of ocular migraine are:

  • Fatigue (associated with chronic lack of sleep, hard physical or mental work).
  • Stress.
  • Mental overexertion.
  • Hormonal changes.
  • Smoking, alcohol abuse.
  • Hypoxia (being in a stuffy room, public transport).
  • The change in the weather.


At the beginning of the attack, patients notice the loss of a small area of the visual field, often in the Central region and then in both eyes. At this stage the image becomes blurred or even disappears, there is a shimmering zig-zag area. The size of the scotoma may gradually increase, she can move from the center to the periphery. After about 20 – 30 minutes after the occurrence of visual disorders there is a severe headache, sometimes with nausea and vomiting. Therefore, physicians consider atrial the scotoma as a visual aura of classical migraine. In some patients, ocular migraines are never accompanied by headache disappears within half an hour after the attack.

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The appearance of the symptoms described above it is necessary to turn to the ophthalmologist and neurologist. First, the expert must rule out any ophthalmological problems (especially dangerous for the eye problems with the retina, which can also appear scotoma), and a neurologist – will clarify a diagnosis and prescribe treatment. The plan of examination of patients with ocular migraine usually includes:

  • Medical examination.
  • Ophthalmoscopy.
  • The study of the field of view.
  • The study of cerebral vessels.

Глазная мигрень: симптомы и лечение


With the development of attack ophthalmic migraine to ease your condition you must do the following:

  • Soak in ventilated, dark and quiet room.
  • Take a sedative (Valerian, motherwort tincture, peppermint tea or something like that).
  • Drink a Cup of sweet strong tea.
  • When intense headaches – taking painkillers, which usually helps with a headache.
  • To do a contrast shower, paying attention to the occipital region of the head, or take a bath.

After the termination of attack should consult the doctor for treatment, the nature of which depends on the cause of the disease. If the appearance of the ocular migraine is due to the banal fatigue, you need to rest, to sleep and subsequently to revise your daily routine. If the doctor will identify autonomic dysfunction, will need to undergo a course of therapy special drugs. Upon detection of vascular disorders are prescribed medications to improve blood supply of the brain (Cavinton, Papazol, Nifedipine, Bilobil, Pantogram, or something else). But to self-medicate or suffer the headache and ignore the visual disturbances is impossible, because ocular migraine can be the first sign of development of serious diseases of the brain (tumors, strokes, etc.).

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