Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation
Arrhythmia is a pathological functional disorder in which change the rhythm and frequency of heartbeats. Sudden onset of this condition is called «paroxysmal arrhythmia». It occurs quite often (20 – 30% of all cases of arrhythmia), especially on the background of pathologies of the heart.
The mechanism of development and the reasons
To ensure adequate speed and volume of blood the heart beats with a frequency of from 60 to 80 per minute. Also the time interval between contractions (systole) and relaxation (diastole) in the same norm. Systole of the heart provides sinus nerves or the physiological pacemaker, which is localized in the right atrium. The impulse from this node spreads through the conduction system of the heart and reaches the cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells), leading to their reduction.
Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is the result of increased formation of impulses in the sinus node, which leads to palpitations. While the muscle fibers of the Atria reduced with a very high frequency, reaching 240 per minute. The frequency of contractions of the ventricles is slightly lower (about 120 per minute), as part of the pulse is delayed in the atrioventricular (atrioventricular) node. Increased impulses to the pacemaker cause several major pathological causes:
- Ischaemic heart disease – insufficient blood flow to the sinus node increases its impulses.
- The weakness (lack of activity) the sinus node usually congenital abnormal condition characterized by a malfunction of the pacemaker.
- Hypertension is a prolonged increase in systemic blood pressure, which affects the functional activity of narocito (cells of the nervous system) the sinus node.
- Heart disease – atrial fibrillation often develops when the mitral valve separating the left atrium and ventricle.
- Alcohol cardiomiopatia – toxic heart damage as a result of systematic use of large doses of alcohol.
- Endocrine disorders – diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism.
- Electrolyte imbalance, accompanied by the insufficient level of sodium ions or potassium.
There are also predisposing factors that provoke seizure disorders of the heartbeat. These include functional disorders of the autonomic nervous system (vagal arrhythmia), the use of a significant amount of food, coffee, alcohol, especially at night, Smoking, intense physical or emotional stress.
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Depending on the localization of the increased pulse formation, there are 3 types of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation:
- Atrial fibrillation is the most common form of atrial fibrillation, in which the increased number of pulses is generated in the atrial sinus node.
- Ventricular form – less common, abnormal pacemaker localized in the departments of the conduction system of the ventricles of the heart.
- The mixed form is the most severe type of arrhythmia, in which there are multiple foci of pathological pacemakers.
The paroxysmal form of the arrhythmia affects the severity of the pathological process and the development of complications, the most formidable of which is the formation of blood clots in the cavity of the Atria.
Clinical symptoms of this pathology are characterized by the fact that periodically develop in paroxysms (bouts) a significant increase in the frequency of contractions of the heart. This condition has many symptoms such as:
- Palpitations, which may radiate to (give) in the neck.
- Shortness of breath, until the development of asthma.
- Dizziness and noise in ears.
- Nausea, sweating.
The paroxysm may last from several minutes to an hour. In the interictal period a man with such a violation usually feels relatively normal. Diagnosis is carried out using ECG (electrocardiography).
In the interictal period therapy is aimed at eliminating the causes of paroxysmal tachycardia (treatment of ischemia, hypertension, pathology of the endocrine system). Also used antiarrhythmic drugs in the form of tablets for prevention of arrhythmia. At the time of attack (when it is protracted course) is intravenous saline (Asparcam, Panangin) with antiarrhythmic action.
Paroxysmal arrhythmia is a chronic disease, therefore, the success of treatment depends on the disciplined execution of doctor’s appointments, as well as General recommendations on the exclusion of effects on the body precipitating factors.
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