Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is paroxysmal periodic significant increase in the heart rate caused by the increased circulation of the pulse in the fiber conduction system of the Atria and atrioventricular node. This condition is quite common, especially among young people, regardless of their gender.
The causes and mechanism of development
Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is one type of arrhythmia (disturbances of frequency and rhythm of heartbeats). It develops due to increased impulses in the pathways of the Atria and atrioventricular (atrioventricular) node, that is, in the structures located anatomically above the ventricles.
Thus the cardiac nerve impulse does not appear in the main pacemaker (atrial) node, and has a different localization of ectopic focus of the heart pacemaker. This pathological condition develops as a result of the impact of cardiac and noncardiac groups etiological (causal) factors. Cardiac causes of supraventricular tachycardia are the result of a pathological process directly in the heart, they include:
- Congenital changes in the conduction system, which are caused by genetic disorders in this pathology manifests itself already in childhood.
- Insufficient blood flow to the tissues of the heart due to coronary disease.
- Heart defects, which affect the anatomical condition of its valves, leading to stretching of the cameras (particularly atrial fibrillation) and nerve fiber pathways.
- Decrease of contractile ability of the myocardium (heart muscle) due to the long load on the heart, affecting its power or presence of valvular heart disease.
- The inflammatory process in the myocardium or structures of conduction system myocarditis.
- Cardiomyopathy – a degenerative-dystrophic lesion of the heart structures.
Noncardiac causes are the result of pathological processes in other organs and systems:
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- Pathology of the endocrine system – increased production of thyroxine and triiodothyronine by the thyroid gland speeds up metabolic processes in the heart tissue with disruption of the conduction system.
- Reflex increase of supraventricular impulses conduction system when occlusion of one pulmonary artery intravascular blood clot (pulmonary embolism).
- Inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia).
- Violation of the functional state (imbalance) of the autonomic nervous system.
Also a violation of the heart rate may develop under the influence of precipitating factors without the presence of a pathological process in the human body. Such factors include regular alcohol consumption, the fascination of coffee, Smoking, excessive physical or mental strain and prolonged stress.
Clinical signs of disease associated with insufficient blood circulation at the height of attack increased frequency of contractions of the heart. These include:
- Nausea may develop vomiting, which brings relief.
- Discomfort mainly on the left chest (the projection area of the heart).
- Breathing problems (shortness of breath) feeling of lack of air.
- Expressed General weakness.
- Dizziness, noises or ringing in the ears, darkening of the eyes.
- Violation of consciousness until the development of syncope.
- Increased frequency of urination.
Such manifestations of tachycardia are accompanied by the feeling expressed palpitations, they develop suddenly and can have different duration (from several minutes to days). Also on paroxysmal tachycardia indicates a rapid heart rate over 100 per minute (count the pulse usually performed on the radial artery, pressing her fingers to the bone in the wrist).
There are several forms paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (sinus, atrioventricular). For a reliable diagnosis is mandatory electrocardiography (ECG), which is a functional study. Because the abnormal quickening of the heart’s contractions is not a constant, its detection is also used Holter monitoring. When the electrocardiograph is connected for a long period of time (usually a day), when changing the frequency and rhythm of cardiac contractions, it automatically starts to record the functional activity of the heart. On ECG, the doctor is able to determine the type of tachycardia, and localization of ectopic focus of excitation.
If developed paroxysm of supraventricular tachycardia, are urgent measures to normalize the heart rate – ice on neck, pressure on the eyeballs (reduces the severity of tachycardia by reflex), the crowding of the head, and parenteral administration of antiarrhythmic drugs.
Conservative treatment consists in the systematic use of antiarrhythmic drugs in pill form. Also there is a radical therapy, in which is the destruction of ectopic foci of excitation with wave impacts. Upon successful treatment of the disease repeated attacks of tachycardia does not develop.
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