Poor blood clotting: causes, treatment

The formation of a thrombus in a vessel is a protective mechanism of the body, which normally is triggered by contact of blood with oxygen and serves to prevent loss of blood. If it were not for this mechanism, persons with any wound or injury could die from blood loss, he could not carry out the operation or to remove the tooth. That is why coagulation (blood test that reflects the clotting ability of blood) is a required analysis before surgery, childbirth, during pregnancy. It is also prescribed for a number of complaints, which can cause the low blood clotting.

Poor blood clotting, possible causes

It should be noted that the formation of a thrombus (physiological hemostasis) is a chain of sequential processes. In the implementation of the mechanism of blood clotting involves over a dozen different proteins, trace elements and cells. If you lack one of the factors is violated, the entire process of blood formation. Reduced blood clotting means that the mechanism of thrombus formation in any of the components is missing or malfunctioning.

The normal process of clot formation in vessels is controlled by the endocrine and nervous systems and the blood system. Most clotting factors are formed in the cells of the liver and spleen, that’s why the main reasons for the decline of coagulation are disease or pathological condition of the nervous and endocrine systems, the liver or the blood system.

  • Diseases of the liver parenchyma. As already mentioned, in the cells of the liver produces most of the coagulation factors (fibrinogen, prothrombin, Hageman factor, etc.). When these cells (in particular, hepatitis), these factors are produced in smaller quantities, the process of blood clotting is slowed.
  • Insufficient amount of calcium in the blood. Calcium ions perform a significant part in the process of thrombus formation. They participate in the launch of the process of thrombus formation, in the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and fibrinogen to fibrin. Due to this trace element are inactivated by heparin, which prevents thrombus formation, and inhibited the process of dissolution of the thrombus.
  • Hemolytic anemia, in which there is massive destruction of red blood cells (erythrocytes). The bone marrow receives information that the blood lacks red blood cells, and the body suffers from lack of oxygen. Starts increased formation of young red blood cells, and platelets are produced in smaller and smaller quantities, which subsequently leads to a decrease in clotting.
  • Malignant blood disease (leukemia), which affect the mechanism of formation of blood cells, including platelets.
  • Damage to major blood vessels that lead to significant blood loss. With all the blood that the body loses a large amount of platelets necessary for clot formation, and blood coagulation factors. The body simply does not have time to recover losses and the process of coagulation is difficult.
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  • Congenital and acquired thrombocytopenia (decrease in the number of platelets in the blood) and trombotsitopatii (normal number of platelets violated their function).
  • Inherited deficiency of certain clotting factors, including vitamin K.
  • Overdose or wrong use of anticoagulants – drugs that prevent blood clotting and thin the blood.
  • Diseases of the vascular wall (vasculitis) infectious or autoimmune in nature.
  • What is the analysis that reflects the clotting of blood?

    Biochemical analysis of blood, the results of which you can judge the efficiency of the blood coagulation system, called koagulogrammou. It shows the coagulation time and the blood levels of some blood coagulation factors. If there is a need to determine the level of calcium in the blood, vitamin K or one of the clotting factors – for this purpose there are special tests.

    Symptoms of low blood clotting

    • Rashes on the skin. Depending on the reasons for poor clotting in the skin can appear as small petechial hemorrhages (petechiae) and a large hematoma.
    • Nosebleeds.
    • Bleeding in the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, intestines. The latter option may cause blood in the stool.
    • Bleeding in the brain. Occur when the fragile blood vessels and low blood clotting.
    • With trauma, laceration, contusion blood for a long time does not stop.
    • Bleeding in the joints, muscles and internal organs can be observed in the hereditary disease hemophilia. Bruising (hematoma) can occur even with minor mechanical damage.

    Treatment of the causes that led to the lowering of the clotting ability of blood

  • Drugs that inhibit (inhibit) the process of fibrinolysis (destruction of fibrin). These include aminocaproic acid and Contrical.
  • Anticoagulants – drugs that accelerate the formation of blood clots. They are divided into two groups – direct and indirect action. To direct include fibrinogen, thrombin and hemostatic sponge. Indirect is vitamin K (Menadione or).
  • The plasma of donor blood transfused to the patient as a means that contains natural clotting factors.
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    Medication low coagulation – this ambulance body. Depending on the causes of poor clotting, the patient may be assigned a lifetime use of certain drugs (for example, hemophilia) and diet enriched with vitamins and calcium. In any case, the treatment of such pathology as reduced clotting ability of blood is a complex of events.