Prevention of CHD, risk factors
The number of patients with heart diseases is increasing every minute. One of the most common problems in medicine is coronary artery disease. This disease is associated with impaired blood supply to the heart and manifests characteristic clinical signs.
What is coronary artery disease?
Coronary heart disease is a condition in which the heart muscle receives insufficient amount of blood, in connection with which there is a violation of metabolic processes, decreases contractility of the heart muscle and developed pain attack. The most striking clinical feature of this condition becomes pain. The reason for its occurrence is the excess of the need heart of oxygen on the possibility of delivery. Such pain intensifies during physical activity and disappear after its termination. Other signs of the disease may vary depending on the type of angina.
There are two main forms of IBS: the different types of angina and myocardial infarction. In addition to these forms of CHD may be manifested by insufficient blood supply, various heart rhythm disorders, sudden coronary death and in other States.
The reasons for the development of the disease
The most common cause of insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle becomes narrowing of the arteries due to their spasm or blockage of the lumen by atherosclerotic plaque. In addition to the main cause of the disease distinguish the IHD risk factors that increase the risk of developing this disease. Most often, these risk factors are divided into two large groups:
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1. The factors which affect impossible:
- Age. Every year the process of formation of atherosclerotic plaques progresses. It begins to develop in childhood and 50 – 60 years most people can face its forms and manifestations.
- Paul. Numerous clinical studies confirm the fact that the disease most often develops in the male. This factor, some researchers explain the fact that the female gender from the development of early atherosclerosis «protect» hormones.
- Genetic predisposition. Patients whose close relatives suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system, are more likely to «earn» coronary artery disease. Apart from genetic factors, may be the result of behavioral habits that the child learns from the family, such as a penchant for Smoking or eating fatty foods.
2. Factors that can affect. They depend on the lifestyle and habits of the person:
- Unbalanced nutrition. One of the most important risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis is the daily consumption of high-calorie food with high content of fatty acids.
- Uncontrolled hypertension. The importance of this factor is confirmed by numerous clinical studies. The problem is the lack of treatment of mild degrees of hypertension and their transition to more serious forms.
- The metabolism of fats. Cholesterol, raising high-density lipoproteins – all of the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.
- Psycho-emotional factors.
- Smoking and alcohol abuse. Smoking has a negative impact on the blood vessels and facilitates the processes of thrombosis. Alcohol in small doses has the opposite effect and reduces the risk of developing the disease, but other negative consequences of alcohol does not allow to recommend it for prevention.
- Weak physical activity.
- Diabetes. The increase in blood sugar has a negative effect on blood vessels and significantly increases the risk of developing this disease.
How does the test work?
The diagnosis put on the basis of the history and conducted laboratory and instrumental investigations. For diagnostic use indications for electrocardiography, echocardiography, laboratory parameters of blood, function tests, angiography, Holter monitoring, etc. Differential diagnosis is carried out with such diseases as diseases of the stomach, esophagus, malignant neoplasms of this region and others In difficult situations, use of additional diagnostic methods (EGD, MRI, etc.).
Principles of therapy
Treatment depends on the specific form of the disease. In different situations the drugs and the approach to therapy differs. Consider the basic provisions:
- Normalization of physical activity. The load is selected in accordance with the age and degree of devascularization.
- Diet for coronary heart disease. In order to reduce the load on the heart muscle limit the intake of water and salt. In addition, limit or exclude foods rich in animal fats and contains fast carbs.
- Drug therapy. Supplementation of different groups: antiplatelet agents, statins, fibrates, nitrates, blockers, diuretics, antiaritmiki etc.
- Surgical treatment. If there are specific indications use of coronary artery bypass grafting or balloon angioplasty.
Prevention of CHD
Prevention of coronary heart disease is the impact on those factors which can be corrected. To cope with genetics or age-related changes impossible, but everyone is able to influence its own weight and to monitor your blood pressure. In patients with a predisposition to CHD normalize body weight and pick up the dosed physical load. Close attention to patients with diabetes mellitus in anamnesis. In addition, preventive measures include lifestyle changes, normalization of nutrition and control over the content of blood lipids.
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