Prevention of stroke: primary and secondary methods

Stroke (in medical practice, acute violation of cerebral circulation) – a pathological condition of the brain, accompanied by the death of nerve cells. Neurological symptoms persists more than a day or much earlier causing the patient’s death.

 

Профилактика инсульта: первичные и вторичные методы

The disease permanently affects the state of health in the form of paralysis, vestibular disorders, paresis, persistent speech disorders. Stroke is getting younger, it proves medical practice. And if before the strokes occurred more frequently after 60 years, today the attack «catches» and people much younger – 50-55 years.

According to statistics, every 90 seconds one of the inhabitants of Russia can sometimes be acute violation of cerebral circulation. And the chances of a full recovery no – the patient either dies during the year, or for life becomes disabled.

Stroke prevention is of great importance! Experts recommend that older people pay more attention to health, because with every passing year the risk of a surprise attack increases.

The main directions of prevention of strokes

All preventive measures for the prevention of stroke focuses on controlling risk factors and their correction. They are divided into several classes:

  • Predisposing the patient’s age, gender, genetics.
  • Behavioral – Smoking, stress, alcohol, drugs, overweight.
  • Metabolic – diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), blood clotting disorder, dyslipidemia (in particular, the increase in the content of cholesterol in blood).
  • Treatment by special agents of metabolic risk factors and total elimination of behavioural – that is the basis for the prevention of stroke attacks.

    Specialists differentiate 2 kinds of strokes:

  • Hemorrhagic. Bleeding with the flow of blood to the brain or under its shell. The fluid thus compressing the nervous tissue, causing the development of cerebral edema.
  • Ischemic. Blockage or spasm of cerebral blood vessels, causing insufficient blood supply to the tissues and the development of cerebral infarction.
  • Профилактика инсульта: первичные и вторичные методы

    The main etiological causes of ischemic stroke atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels and hypertension. Strokes hemorrhagic type is more often caused by aneurysms, diabetes and hypertension. Prevention of stroke and cerebral infarction, taking into account the main reasons are aimed at:

    • treatment of hypertension in patients;
    • constant supervision by an ophthalmologist;
    • regular checkups by a cardiologist;
    • regular blood test;
    • prevention in patients after repetitive beats of «small» strokes.
    • therapy of disordered lipid metabolism in patients with atherosclerotic lesion of cerebral vessels.

    Preventive measures are divided into primary and secondary. Complex therapy is extremely important for patients at risk. Taking care of your health, can prevent stroke, continuing to live life to the fullest!

    Primary prevention

    Primary stroke prevention – activities aimed at preventing the development of disorders of the cerebral circulation. The patient receives the following advice from the doctor:

  • Adherence to the rules of a healthy lifestyle. The patient must give up bad habits (Smoking, alcohol), more exercise, not overweight. If the body is in good shape, he is not afraid of any ischemic attacks.
  • Diet. A healthy balanced diet will help prevent hypertension and blockage of blood vessels. It is necessary to reduce blood cholesterol, reduce salt intake, to enrich the diet with trace elements (magnesium, potassium, calcium). Experts say that the usual (and so harmful) diet of the average patient is more than half-increases the risk of stroke. Eat more vegetables, greens and fruits, meat, dairy products. But the consumption of the salty, starchy, oily, canned is better kept to a minimum.
  • Lipid-lowering therapy. Aimed at reducing cholesterol in the blood with the help of special medications – statins (Niacin, pravastatin, simvastatin). The treatment reduces the level of lipids in the blood and prevents the accumulation of cholesterol on vascular walls. And because fats hinder blood circulation.
  • Anti-hypertensive therapy. The treatment is aimed at reducing high blood pressure. Hypertension can be kept under control, using special drugs – diuretics, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers. The right drug selected by the doctor, given the state of health of the patient and his history. Drug therapy of high blood pressure is a long process, constantly corrected by a specialist.
  • Herbal preparations and «grandma’s» recipes. Traditional medicine is not always bad. Deducted somewhere a recipe of decoction or infusion, lowering cholesterol and blood pressure, you can use. But a prerequisite – home treatment be sure to combine with traditional methods and constant supervision by a physician.
  • Primary prevention of stroke is not a single day. Follow health constantly. And it’s not just the elderly – to take care of yourself need from a young age! The food that we eat, the lifestyle that we lead often has a very negative effect on our blood vessels. And it is fraught with trouble.

    Профилактика инсульта: первичные и вторичные методы

    Secondary prevention

    Secondary stroke prevention – activities aimed at prevention of recurrent stroke. Patients who stroke require in the home and regular checkups with a specialist.

    After suffering a stroke impact the patient fully recovers. The rest of your life he needs to stick to a healthy lifestyle and take medicines.

    To nemedikamentozhnykh prevention methods include:

    • a complete rejection of bad habits;
    • the control of blood clotting;
    • strict diet.

    Lead an active lifestyle in patients after a stroke is unlikely to succeed, but to constantly lie in a hospital bed is unacceptable! Here and need the help of family and friends. Massage, exercise therapy, a gradual increase in physical activity – here’s what you need to provide the person after stroke. If you approach therapy holistically, the patient will be able to take care of themselves – eating, potty-training, Hiking.

    Профилактика инсульта: первичные и вторичные методы

    To treatment include prevention the following methods:

  • The appointment of antithrombotic drugs. This is an important link in post-stroke period, because now it is impossible to prevent the aggregation of platelets in the blood stream. Doctor prescribes and antiplatelet agents, indirect anticoagulants (Aspirin, Dipyridamole, Tiklopidin, Clopidogrel). Medical therapy is conducted for a long period of time under the supervision of a physician who, if necessary, reduces or increases the dose of drugs. Drugs have a lot of contraindications, and because chosen by specialist individually.
  • The appointment of antihypertensive drugs. To keep control of blood pressure is important now, because even the slightest jump can lead to irreversible consequences. Used the same drugs, and primary prevention.
  • Surgical treatment (carotid endarterectomy). This secondary stroke prevention, which is aimed at the removal of narrowed or collapsed internal carotid artery. If the operation is successful, will be restored blood flow in this area. It is relatively safe and is characterized by a long-lasting effect – the patient becomes much better. Before the operation the patient passes studies duplex ultrasound, tomography, angiography.
  • How easy to pass post-stroke period will depend on the further condition of the patient.

    READ  Neurocirculatory dystonia on the mixed type