Rapid pulse: what to do?
The pulse is called the oscillations of the vascular wall under the pressure of the blood. Its frequency corresponds to the frequency of contractions of the heart. Under certain conditions, the heart rate speeds up (there is tachycardia). In this article, the reasons for such violations, and ways to normalize heart rhythm.
The etiology of accelerated heartbeat
Tachycardia can be physiological in nature and arise on a background of fear, emotional stress, etc., but in some cases, this symptom indicates disorders in the cardiovascular system or is a manifestation of other pathologies in the body. In the quiescent state in the adult the pulse is approximately 60 – 80 beats/min. Among the most frequent factors that lead to a rapid heartbeat, you need the following:
- temperature rise;
- allergic reactions;
- neoplastic processes;
- endocrine disorders, including thyroid disease;
- changes in the autonomic NS;
- pathology of the cardiovascular system (including myocarditis, endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, heart failure);
- infections and any condition in which is expressed intoxication;
- diseases of the respiratory system, particularly pneumonia and asthma;
- age-related changes of the myocardium;
- uncontrolled intake of certain medication.
How to measure pulse?
For a correct evaluation of the heartbeat pulse should be measured at the same time in the same position of the patient. It is recommended to carry out measurements in the morning, after waking, when a person takes a horizontal position and couldn’t get out of bed. For more accurate performance measurement is carried out within minutes, but with the right heart rhythm is not required. It is sufficient to determine the number of beats in 30 seconds and multiply the number by 2.
It is easiest to palpate the radial artery on the anterior surface of the forearm. The child is better to measure the frequency of pulse waves in the temporal arteries. If necessary, measure the pulse in the carotid, femoral or ulnar arteries. It is not recommended to perform measurements in the following cases:
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- after exercise or immediately after any other such loads;
- after the massage;
- if people did not sleep well;
- in women not recommended to measure heart rate during critical days;
- after staying by the fire after tanning in the sun or stay in the cold heart rate changes as well;
- it is not necessary to measure the pulse after a bath and sex, as well as in acute sense of hunger, or, conversely, after a meal.
In evaluating the results one should take into account the General condition of a person’s age and gender, presence of concomitant diseases. It is important to know what medications the patient is taking, since a significant part of the pharmacological drugs can affect heart rate and thus trigger a rapid pulse. In addition, it should be remembered that excessive consumption of coffee, alcohol and Smoking also provoke tachycardia.
Among children diagnosed with high pulse quite often. In the first year of life, it is about 140 beats/min, but this is considered normal. With age, the heart rate decreases and adolescence is 60 – 80 beats (as in adults). Why quickens the pulse in children? This is mainly due to strong emotions and drastic weather changes.
After the termination of the precipitating factor of the heart rate is normalized independently. In cases when a crash pulse is accompanied by pain in the heart area, dizziness and nausea, you should immediately consult a cardiologist. In case of cold sweat, loss of consciousness or convulsive state, you need to call an ambulance.
During pregnancy tachycardia is considered to be physiological, because it is associated with changes in the body during gestation. Basically, this heartbeat occurs in mild form and does not affect the General condition of women. In cases where the expectant mother on the background of an accelerated heart rate complains of discomfort in the chest, pronounced headache, dizziness, and shortness of breath, numbness of body parts, or loss of consciousness, you should immediately inspect it thoroughly and find out the cause of accelerated heart rhythm.
What to do with tachycardia?
For normalization of work of heart, first of all, to eliminate the influence of precipitating factors that contribute to the more frequent contraction of the myocardium and a correspondingly higher pulse. In the emotional etiology of tachycardia, you need to try to calm down, to escape from a stressful situation, get rid of the oppressive clothing, if possible you need to get some fresh air. If necessary, you can take a sedative plant origin (for example, tincture of Valerian or motherwort, Corvalol, or Welactin).
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For reflex slowing of heart rate is recommended to wash your face with cold water and drink cold water. Can be applied on forehead soaked in cold water. You can also lightly massage the area of the neck where you can feel the pulsation of the carotid artery. To slow down the contraction of the heart when you breath during a deep breath or by pressing on the eyeballs.
How to shoot the tachycardia pharmacological means?
Among the medicines that help reduce heart rate, you can specify the Nitroglycerin, Sustac, Verapamil, and Nifedipine Panangin. Each of them should be agreed with your doctor because every drug has its contraindications or side effects, which can only worsen the General condition of the patient. In addition, it should be remembered that none of them take effect instantly. Therefore, you should strictly adhere to the scheduled dosing. Otherwise you can provoke, on the contrary, the bradycardia and associated hypotension.
Upon detection of an accelerated heart rate is a must do EKG, ultrasound of the heart and pass a comprehensive examination to determine the etiology of tachycardia and appropriate treatment.