Residual encephalopathy in children: what is it?
Encephalopathy is a disease of the brain, which violated its functioning. In children, encephalopathy may be congenital, acquired during birth, postpartum, infant or preschool age. A feature of the residual encephalopathy is that it manifests itself otsrochennoe, not immediately after exposure to damaging factor, and after months or even years.
Residual encephalopathy (PE) – what is it?
PE is a disease characterized by pathological changes in the brain. This condition is due to the death of brain neurons, which entails the loss of certain brain functions. The term «residual» is used, referring to the manifestation of the sequelae of perinatal and neonatal encephalopathy. If at birth or during pregnancy were factors which damage the brain of the child, he will likely develop perinatal encephalopathy (PE).
In the first weeks of life PE intensively treated, but with incomplete recovery of the child after a significant period of time may develop residual («residual») encephalopathy. The disease can cause the following factors:
- viral and bacterial infections;
- skull fractures, concussions and contusions of the brain;
- inflammatory diseases of the brain and its membranes (meningitis, encephalitis, arachnoiditis);
- the presence of diabetes;
- acute and transient disorders of cerebral circulation;
- krizova for dystonia;
- essential (primary) hypertension;
- exposure to radiation, toxic substances (including alcohol, drugs, psychotropic drugs) on the body.
Residual encephalopathy in children: symptoms
Clinical signs of PE may be different depending on the location of lesions in the brain. The most characteristic clinical manifestations of residual encephalopathy in children:
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- easy excitability, in which the child could not calm down;
- emotional instability (lability) – frequent episodes of crying, tantrums without reason;
- increase fatigue, seizures, General weakness, lethargy;
- impairment of attention and memory;
- bad adjustment of medications frequent dizziness and severe headaches;
- sleep disturbances (drowsiness in the daytime and insomnia at night);
- pre-existing conditions and fainting.
In severe disease there is a loss of the sucking reflex, disorders of neuromuscular conduction (paresis, paralysis) may develop convulsions, speech disorders, decrease in intellectual skills and abilities.
Diagnosis of PE in children
Often doctors can be difficult to diagnose residual encephalopathy in a child due to the large time interval between action the damaging factor for the brain and the beginning of the first manifestations of the disease. The important role played by a careful anamnesis (history) pregnancy, childbirth and the flow of the postpartum period. A careful examination of the child by a consultant neurologist. To identify the localization of the lesion in the brain apply of functional methods of diagnostics:
- magnetic resonance nuclear imaging;
- and multilayer spiral computed tomography;
- rheovasography of the head and neck;
- craniography (x-ray of the skull).
Methods of treatment for each child, the doctor selects individually. The purpose of therapeutic interventions due to the causes of re, the localization of lesions in the brain, the severity of the condition and clinical manifestations of the disease. A common choice is therapy with drugs of different groups. Prescribers:
- improves blood circulation in the brain (Stugeron, Vinpocetine);
- anticonvulsant (antiepileptic) drugs (Carbamazepine, Depakine);
- non-steroidal (non-hormonal) anti-inflammatory (Metamizole, Ibuprofen);
- steroid (hormone) anti-inflammatory (Dexamethasone, Prednisone);
- multivitamin complexes (Vitrum baby, kids formula);
- sedative (Negrustin, Glycine);
- nootropics (Cortexin for children, TenTen children).
Great importance is the treatment with physiotherapy. Massage and therapeutic exercises help to increase muscle tone, increase blood flow. Physical therapy helps to restore the disorders of coordination of movements and motor (movement) functions of skeletal muscle. Group and individual classes organize children, favorable correction of behavior.
How to behave at home with a child suffering from residual encephalopathy?
Parents should arrange the day for the child, to provide quality food, proper rest, daily walks. Children should speak, to play intelligent and active games by age. If the child refuses to lessons, to repeat the request, but gently. In disagreement to put pressure on the child cannot. You should switch his attention to something else or leave alone for a while. The teenager it is necessary to explain the harmful effects of Smoking, toxic substances in his sick brain.
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What is the prognosis?
With timely diagnosis and proper treatment approach prognosis re favorable. Maybe complete recovery of all functions either to stabilize the condition. In case of late detection of pathologies or disregard medical advice residual encephalopathy can lead to severe complications. Likely to develop epileptic disease, dystonia with severe krizovym over, hydroencephaly syndrome, cerebral palsy.
To avoid irreversible effects, re, need to carefully observe the child, especially if he suffered perinatal encephalopathy. At the first appearance of disturbing symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor.