Residual encephalopathy: what is it, symptoms and treatment
The term «residual encephalopathy» determines the state of the brain, the development of which is associated with residual effects after acute pathological processes. The development of this condition is due to damage of cells of the nervous system. The highest incidence of residual encephalopathy recorded in the winter-spring period of the year.
Residual encephalopathy – what is it, mechanism of development
Residual encephalopathy is a condition that is a residual phenomenon of the transferred damage neurocytol (cells of the nervous system) of the brain. As nervous tissue is very highly organized (high differentiation), then after the damage neurocytol their regeneration (recovery of the number of cells per unit volume of tissue) is impossible.
So after suffering the pathological process, accompanied by damage to neurocytol, develops a violation of the functional state of brain structures. Further functions of the damaged neurocytol gradually take on nearby parts of the brain. Since the Foundation of this state is irreversible damage of cells, it is also called «residual organic encephalopathy».
There are many different causal (etiological) factors that lead to the corruption narocito with the subsequent development of the residual encephalopathy. These include:
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- The trauma of the brain (traumatic brain injury) that lead to mechanical damage of narocito, as well as the disruption of their trophic (feeding) due to edema of the tissues and deterioration of blood supply.
- The toxic effects of the intake of compounds that damage the nervous system structures (high doses of alcohol, especially in the case of its systematic use, salts of heavy metals, biological toxins, some medications when their wrong use, narcotic substances).
- Atherosclerotic disease of the cerebral arteries is the deposition of cholesterol on the vessel walls with the formation of atherosclerotic plaques that reduce the clearance with impaired circulation.
- Metabolic disorders in the body, particularly diabetes, in which the background of high sugar increases the concentration of toxic products of disturbed metabolism (ketone bodies).
- Pathology of the liver, biliary tract, blood system with increased levels of bilirubin, which is toxic compound.
- Pathology of the kidney, accompanied by a decrease of their functional activity and accumulation of blood urea, having a damaging impact on neurocity.
- Acute violation of blood circulation in the brain (hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke).
- Pronounced jumps in blood pressure (hypertensive disease, vegetative-vascular dystonia) with blood circulation in the tissues of the brain.
- Inflammatory disorders of the tissues – the development of neuroinfections (meningitis, viral or bacterial encephalitis).
The combined effects of multiple etiological factors (neuroinfection in the background of atherosclerotic vascular changes of the brain) lead to a more severe impairment of functional activity of nervous system structures on residual organic background.
The residual symptoms of encephalopathy are characterized by a variety of manifestations, depending on the primary localization of the damage neurocytol in the brain:
- Severe headache, which usually is paroxysmal in nature and is poorly relieved by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Fatigue person, reduced efficiency.
- The decrease in the intensity of the mental processes, the deterioration of short-term (sometimes long-term) memory.
- Emotional lability – rapid and severe mood swings.
- Sleep disorders characterized by insomnia at night and sleepiness during the day.
In severe this condition (occurs when a significant number of damaged narocito) may develop movement disorders (paresis or paralysis of various muscle groups, the effects of Parkinson’s disease), migrenepodobnaya headache, deterioration of hearing, vision, paresthesia (numbness of the skin in different areas of the body), seizures of various localization and severity. The symptoms may be stable and persist for a long time.
Since the same clinical symptoms may accompany other pathologies of the Central nervous system, for reliable diagnosis, residual encephalopathy is optionally applied to EEG (electroencephalography), CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and other methods.
Therapeutic interventions in residual encephalopathy have several aims – the restoration of the functional activity of the brain, reducing the severity of damage neurocytol. For this purpose, various drugs:
- Anti-inflammatory drugs – reduce inflammation and reduce the severity of further damage to neurocytol.
- Cardiovascular drugs – improve the blood circulation in the tissues of the brain and the face neurocytol, contributing to the improvement of their functional state.
- Neuroprotectors – funds that reduce the sensitivity of narocito to insufficient intake of food, and significantly increases their activity.
- Anticonvulsants in severe pathology.
Additionally physiotherapy, including acupuncture, reflexology, mud baths, remedial gymnastics. Treatment residual encephalopathy the doctor selects for each patient individually. With timely start of adequate therapy prognosis is favorable, there is a gradual restoration of the lost functions of the brain, and also decrease the severity of symptoms.
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