Sclerosis of cerebral vessels: symptoms, treatment

The main reason for cerebrovascular events, including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes is sclerosis of the cerebral arteries, which is characterized by narrowing of the lumen.

What is cerebral arteriosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is a pathological process in which in the inner layer of the arteries accumulate fats, cholesterol, cellular metabolites, calcium and other substances. These centers of accumulation is called an atherosclerotic plaque.

Atherosclerosis is a slow and gradually progressive process that begins in adolescence and lasts for the rest of my life, and can cause serious diseases. Narrowing the arteries, atherosclerotic plaques violate blood flow and form a prerequisite for the formation of blood clots and ischemic stroke.

In case of irregular sclerosis of the arterial wall can be formed of its bulge – the aneurysm, with rupture which occurs hemorrhagic stroke. Both these types of disturbances of cerebral blood flow can be fatal. Sclerosis of the arteries of the brain also associated with the development of vascular dementia, in which small, asymptomatic strokes lead to a progressive accumulation of damaged and dead neurocytol.

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Causes of sclerosis of cerebral vessels

The exact cause of arteriosclerosis is unknown. However, doctors have long known factors that increase the risk of developing it:

  • Genetic predisposition.
  • Old age.
  • Male.
  • Hypertension.
  • Increased levels of cholesterol in the blood.
  • The excessive weight.
  • Smoking.
  • Diabetes.
  • Lack of physical activity.
  • Diet with lots of saturated fats and insufficient intake of fruit, vegetables and fish.

Symptoms of sclerosis of the arteries of the brain

Clinic sclerosis of the arteries of the brain develops gradually. First, a person may notice memory loss, occasional headaches and dull aching, mood swings and ringing in the ears. As the progression of vascular sclerosis symptoms heavier, gain lasting. With the development of complications of cerebral atherosclerosis (stroke, dementia), the clinical picture corresponds to their type. With the development of stroke in humans, can suddenly appear the following symptoms:

  • Numbness or weakness in the muscles of the face, upper or lower extremities, especially one-sided.
  • Confusion, disturbance of speech and its perception.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination.
  • Severe headache.
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With the development of these symptoms should seek medical help, because only timely treatment can reduce the harm caused to the brain functions. On vascular dementia in the elderly, says the presence of personality changes such as apathy, tearfulness, irritability, and memory impairment.

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Diagnosis

For the detection of arterial sclerosis of the brain is:

  • Angiography – radiopaque examination of blood vessels, which can be used to identify atherosclerotic plaque and aneurysms of the arteries.
  • Computed tomography – x-ray method in which the image is processed by a computer.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging allows to evaluate the structure, severity and location of sclerosis. During the MRI does not use x-rays, so its use does not pose a risk to humans. However, people with metal implants in the body to carry out an MRI impossible, as it uses a strong magnetic field.

These methods are unable to detect sclerosis of cerebral vessels before there ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, vascular dementia.

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How to treat cerebral arteriosclerosis?

The healing process arteriosclerosis of the brain involves lifestyle changes and taking medicines. To start to treat this pathology medical preferably after the implementation of the following recommendations:

  • Rational and balanced diet.
  • Physical exercise for 30 minutes a day.
  • Quitting Smoking and abuse of alcohol.
  • Normalization of weight.
  • Controlling stress.

Drug therapy includes:

  • Reducing the level of blood cholesterol drugs – statins (Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin).
  • Drugs that suppress platelet function – antiplatelet agents (Aspirin, Clopidogrel).
  • Drugs that reduce svorachivanie of blood – anticoagulants (Warfarin, Xarelto).
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It should be noted that not all patients need drug therapy. The essential medicines selected by the doctor based on the diagnosis and the patient’s condition, taking account of the reasons which led to the development of sclerosis of the arteries of the brain.