Sinus arrhythmia heart: what is it?
Sinus arrhythmia of the heart (the sinus) is a disruption of the heart, expressed in deviation from the norm of the intervals between the contractions of the myocardium. In this pathology the heartbeat can be irregular when contraction of the myocardium occur through unequal time intervals. The parts of the heart contract in the proper sequence.
There are two types of arrhythmia. Bradycardia syndrome increase the interval between heartbeats (less than 60 beats per minute). Tachycardia – intensification of heart rate to above 100 beats per minute. There are cases of alternating types of arrhythmias − predeterminately syndrome – a phenomenon in which the heart rate increases or decreases in a chaotic manner.
In normal healthy people, there are 60 and 100 heartbeats per minute, with equal intervals.
Causes of sinus arrhythmia
The frequency of cardiac contractions is directly related to the functioning of the sinus node, a receptor which is able to immediately respond to the slightest changes in the nervous system. Sometimes sinus arrhythmia is a variant of the physiological norm. The change in heart rate is associated with the function of the respiratory system and may occur as a temporary phenomenon, in the absence of pathological processes in the body. Palpitations involves heavy breathing, after a meal, as a result of physical activity or past emotional load.
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Bradycardia is normal for people, often experiencing high physical load (e.g. athletes). In moments of lack of physical activity the frequency of their heart rate considerably below the average. Slow heart rate is a natural process and healthy elderly people.
Sinus arrhythmia may also occur as a temporary phenomenon during gestation of the fetus, by increasing the amount of blood in a woman’s body, and consequently, increase the load on the heart. In this case, the heart rate usually returns to normal values after delivery, and the arrhythmia does not require any special treatment. Nevertheless, pregnant women should follow the prevention and timely detection of heart disease. They show the planned passage of such examinations as ECG, Echo and Holter examination, regular attendance of Perinatology, taking special vitamin complex drugs, balancing sleep and rest, balanced diet with plenty of fiber.
In adolescence, cardiac arrhythmias are often the companions of the processes of puberty, due to increased hormonal activity of the adrenal glands, thyroid gland, and genital organs. Strong abnormal rhythm of the heartbeat may occur for the following reasons:
- chronic diseases (mostly heart and blood vessels);
- overdose of some drugs;
- the strain on the nervous system;
- electrolyte imbalances (lack of magnesium, potassium and calcium);
- excessive consumption of alcohol.
Sinus arrhythmia can cause diseases such as myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, cardiosclerosis, rheumatic fever, etc. Ischemia is the most common disease leading to cardiac arrhythmias. Sinus arrhythmia can also cause disorders of the nervous system, bronchitis, asthma, thyroid disease and adrenal glands, diabetes.
Disruptions in myocardial contractility with excessive consumption of medicines, as a rule, are reversible. To sinus arrhythmias may cause reception glycosides (due to the stimulation of cardiac activity), diuretics, and misuse of antiarrhythmic drugs.
A deficiency of potassium and magnesium leads to difficulty in relaxation of the myocardium. The heart muscle being in a shortened state, can not receive blood sufficient amount of nutrients and oxygen. Lack of potassium causes swelling of the heart tissues by increasing the concentration of sodium in the cells and the delay of excess water. Edematous tissue does not function normally.
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Smoking and alcohol consumption lead to irreversible changes in the heart. Sinus arrhythmia even in the complete rejection of bad habits is preserved, but in a less pronounced form.
The likelihood of a pathological sinus arrhythmia is higher in aged people, whereas physiological arrhythmia (transient rhythm disorders of myocardial contraction in a healthy person) is more typical for young people. The factors of sinus arrhythmia are diseases such as senile amyloidosis, liver disease, hypothyroidism, brucellosis, typhus. Moreover, arrhythmia may occur in response to hypothermia.
Bouts of bradycardia often accompanied by severe oxygen deprivation, abnormal increase in the acidity of the blood and blood pressure. Also sinus arrhythmia may be accompanied by tachycardia, fibrillation and an atrial flutter. Because of the simultaneous manifestations of different disorders of the heart in the diagnosis it is difficult to determine what it is and what is the root cause of heart failure.
Treatment of sinus arrhythmia
In many cases, the heart rate returns to normal after the cause of its violation. That is, the arrhythmia may not require treatment. But in some cases, when distinct human heartbeat, requires drug therapy or cardiac pacing. The latter method is typically used when severe slowing of the heart rate, accompanied by fainting.
When choosing a drug should take into account the nuances of diagnosis and individual characteristics of the organism. Self-medication if sinus arrhythmia is unacceptable. In most cases, to determine whether the disease is dangerous, and choose the correct course of treatment can help the cardiologist. If it is known that disturbance of heart rhythm caused by psychological reasons, recommendations may be given by the neurologist or even a psychiatrist.
For relief of sinus arrhythmia caused by nervous disorders, appointed by sedatives (Novopassit, Valerian, motherwort, Corvalol, etc.) and neurometabolic stimulants (Glycine, Pantogram, Picamilon, etc.). In extremely severe cases, disorders of the nervous system can be treated with neuroleptics and tranquilizers.
When severe bradycardia patient may require installation of a pacemaker is a small device, to introduce under the skin and sends electric impulse to the heart muscle in the case of slow heart rate to dangerous levels. In the treatment of sinus arrhythmia, the patient is recommended a special diet to minimize the consumption of white flour products, fatty and sugary foods and to avoid physical and nervous fatigue. In almost all cases, cardiac arrhythmia patients recommended the use of drugs, potassium and magnesium, therapy with medicinal plants (e.g., raspberry leaves, chamomile flowers and sage) and special physiotherapy.
Sinus arrhythmia is not always discomfort, and therefore may go unnoticed. This applies as much to temporary changes in heart rate in healthy people and pathological cases of violation of the process of myocardial contraction. For this reason, timely detection of arrhythmia is necessary to periodically pass electrocardiographic examination.