Sinus bradycardia heart: what is it, symptoms and treatment
Sinus bradycardia heart is one of many types of cardiac arrhythmias. It occurs as a normal variant in some trained athletes, but more often acts as a manifestation of serious disorders of the heart. With a significant decrease in heart rate may develop heart failure and happen in sudden cardiac arrest. Therefore, the slowing of the heart must be treated carefully and to take timely preventive measures.
Sinus bradycardia. What is it?
This violation of cardiac rhythm in the direction of slowing it and reducing heart rate to less than 60 beats per minute. The sinoatrial (or sinus) bradycardia means that the damage occurred at the level of the first component of the cardiac conduction system – sinoatrial node. Itself conducting system of the heart operates in the mode of automaticity, that is, independently generates nerve impulses necessary to reduce. Under the influence of external factors or damage to areas of the heart inside is the disruption of this system is disturbed the rhythmic contraction of the heart.
Possible causes of sinus bradycardia
Distinguish physiological factors (hypothermia, relaxation of the body, sleep, regular exercise). They cause non-pathological bradycardia and do not indicate disease, but are physiologically normal for the body. Non cardiac (noncardiac) causes. These include any factors of the internal organs except the heart
- autonomic dysfunction (neurocirculatory dystonia);
- neurosis with dystonia;
- squeezing the neck tie or a tight collar causes damage to the carotid sinus;
- increased intracranial pressure (with meningitis, traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain edema, brain tumors, hydrocephalus);
- hormonal disturbances (e.g., decreased function of the thyroid gland – hypothyroidism).
Cardiac (heart) causes, that is, those in which there is organic damage of the heart muscle or the area where is located the sinus node. These include:
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- myocarditis (inflammation of the myocardium);
- acute myocardial infarction when part of the heart falls out of the zone of nerve impulses;
- myocardial or myocardiosclerosis – change of structure of cardiac muscle when it is already unable to fully perform the conductive function.
In a separate group, you can make the causes of drug, that is observed in patients receiving certain drugs such as cardiac glycosides, calcium antagonists, beta-blockers, diuretics, narcotic drugs.
Another group of causes can combine toxic factors, when the body is under the action of toxic substances or toxins enters the stage of deceleration. This occurs in severe infections (typhoid, sepsis, hepatitis) or poisoning poisons (e.g. organophosphate). When the cause of bradycardia is impossible to figure out, talking about the idiopathic form of arrhythmia.
Bradycardia as a manifestation of the syndrome sick sinus
This is a rare, but serious type of arrhythmia, which is based on genetically predraspolozhennost weakness is the primary pacemaker of the heart. Early in the disease may show no symptoms or manifest as weakness, fatigue and dizziness. With the progression of pathology can be observed seizures with loss of consciousness syndrome (Morgagni-Adams-Stokes). Often this syndrome occurs in children.
Symptoms of bradiaritmii
Moderate bradycardia may not occur in the form of any complaints or symptoms. Characteristic signs of dizziness, weakness, semiconscious States begin to appear or when bradycardia with heart rate less than 40 BPM, or with severe organic pathology.
Bradycardia would be alterations of blood pressure downward, difficulty breathing, chest pain, memory loss and confused thinking. Sometimes there may be a sharp decline or a temporary loss of vision and seizures. The cause of these symptoms is a delayed functioning of the heart and, as a consequence, the lack of oxygen in the blood and tissues. The first reacts to oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) to the brain.
Treatment of sinus bradycardia
You must understand that a slight decrease in heart rate is not accompanied by complaints, treatment is not needed. If you experience severe symptoms or threat to life may be a question even about the surgical treatment.
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Take the army with bradycardia?
The answer to this question cannot be unambiguous, because it depends on the causes of reduced heart rate. If the bradycardia is not a serious disease (heart disease, for example) or the syndrome of weakness of sinus node, it is not a contraindication for military service. The detection of organic lesions of the heart or congenital abnormalities bradycardia indirectly can cause the deferment from the army.