Sinus tachycardia: is it dangerous? Symptoms and treatment
Heart rate determines the synchronous operation of all internal organs. For violation of this rhythm changes occur in the body. Sometimes sinus tachycardia (acceleration of heart rate) is a natural reaction of the body. In this case, it is not dangerous, but rather protects the body from destruction.
But there are cases where tachycardia is a manifestation or result of a serious disease. Treatment of tachycardia is not complexity, but lack of treatment can lead to irreversible consequences in the body that violate its normal functioning.
What is sinus tachycardia?
Heart rate is controlled by the Autonomous regulation of the heart, the main component of which is the sinus node. The frequency of impulses sent by this node, determines the frequency of contractions of the heart muscle. Sinus tachycardia is increase in heart rate (pulse) of more than 90 – 100 beats per minute in adults or 10% more than age norm in children.
The causes of the disease
The increase in heart rate is a protective reaction of the body arising from exposure to external or internal irritants. This reaction is aimed at increasing the supply of oxygen and nutrients to internal organs. There are physiological (natural) and pathological (in various diseases) tachycardia. Causes of physiological sinus tachycardia can be:
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- enhanced physical activity;
- adolescence (there is a rearrangement of the endocrine system, the instability of the hormonal teenagers);
- pregnancy (tachycardia caused by, in this case the increased load on all the organs women, as well as hormonal changes);
- drinking large amounts of caffeinated beverages (coffee, tea);
- stress, emotion, excitement.
Pathological causes of sinus tachycardia can be:
- intoxication (poisoning by toxins of viruses or bacteria, nicotine, alcohol, narcotic substances);
- fever (every degree of body temperature above normal leads to an increase in heart rate of 10 beats);
- diseases of the endocrine system such as diseases of the thyroid gland with increased release of its hormones into the blood (hyperthyroidism) or diseases of the adrenal with increased release their hormones (pheochromocytoma);
- effects of medications (corticosteroids, antidepressants, caffeine, diuretics, aminophylline, nifedipine and others);
- diseases of the respiratory organs (bronchitis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, bronchiectasis, bronchial asthma, respiratory insufficiency, and others);
- blood diseases (anemia – lack of hemoglobin and oxygen starvation of the body);
- diseases of the heart and blood vessels (heart disease, heart failure, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, angina, coronary heart disease, etc.);
- diseases of the nervous system (neurosis, panic attack, etc.).
The symptoms of sinus tachycardia
Often the disease does not manifest itself clinically, and detected in prophylactic examinations, ECG (electrocardiogram). Usually the first symptoms, the patient begins to notice after the stress, infectious illness or injury when the total forces of an organism weaken. Sinus tachycardia is manifested by the following symptoms:
- feeling that the heart «skips» or hard beats;
- feeling of compression in the chest, shortness of breath, difficulty while trying to take a deep breath;
- there are signs of oxygen deficiency – weakness, pallor, dizziness, sometimes loss of consciousness;
- short pains of pressing character in the chest, which often occurs in patients with tachycardia on the background of ischemic heart disease;
- fatigue, especially after exercise.
Possible complications of sinus tachycardia. Is it dangerous?
When protracted course of the disease or untreated, heart and body in General suffer a great deal. This happens for some reason.
- Frequent contraction of the heart muscle a period of rest reduced heart wears out faster.
- Due to the fast pace of the cuts in the cavity of the heart receives less blood, reduced blood pressure numbers, to the internal organs get less oxygen and nutrients, which triggers an increase in heartbeat. It is a vicious circle.
- With the accelerated work of the heart requires more oxygen and nutrients. It gets them only in the period of cardiac muscle relaxation. And due to the fact that this period is reduced, the heart also suffers from hypoxia (oxygen starvation).
Treatment of sinus tachycardia
Mild disease or no symptoms, drug treatment is not carried out. The patient in these cases needs to undergo regular ECG for monitoring heart rhythm. In other cases, the treatment is carried out depending on the causes of tachycardia:
- when the infectious cause produce treatment of chronic foci of infection or acute infectious process;
- in diseases of the internal organs produce treatment of the underlying disease (heart, thyroid, lung);
- in diseases of the nervous system are assigned sedative drugs, nootropics, antidepressants;
- iron-deficiency anemia prescribers iron;
- when drug tachycardia conduct withdrawal of drugs, leading to increased heart rate.