Stroke prevention: memo

Stroke — an acute condition caused by poor circulation of the brain. Consequences of sharp violations of cerebral circulation (stroke): unilateral paralysis of the muscles, problems with memory and impaired speech. A stroke can lead to the development of disability and often leads to death. The rapid development of symptoms does not predict stroke. Every person can minimize the risk of its development at home and to help another person in distress.

Sanbyulleten: types of stroke and its causes

Distinguish 2 types of stroke:

  • Coronary or cerebral infarction (80%) — violation of blood flow in a specific area of the brain due to thrombosis/spasm of the vessel leading to the death of brain cells.
  • Hemorrhagic — rupture of a cerebral vessel, giving rise to hemorrhage in brain tissue or in the sheath.

Damage to the blood vessels of the brain due to trauma (posttraumatic thrombus formation and aneurysm rupture) unpredictably. In most cases, the stroke occurs in people suffering from:

  • hypertension and heart disease (especially arrhythmia);
  • diabetes;
  • obesity;
  • atherosclerosis (high cholesterol) and high blood clotting.

However, the «brain stroke» can occur in apparently healthy people:

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  • 55 years;
  • with a burdened heredity (diagnosed CVD in close relatives);
  • bad habits — Smoking, alcohol, drugs.

Key facts about stroke:

  • In the age group of 45 – 55 years, the stroke twice as often affects men.
  • The maximum risk of a stroke refers to the first hours after drinking alcohol.
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  • A great experience of Smoking more than 15 cigarettes a day — a common cause of «brain attack» in young, 60% increases the risk of acute stroke in women and 40% in men. Quitting Smoking after 5 years leading risk indicators to the level of never Smoking person.
  • A pressure reduction of 8 – 10 units of RT. article halve the risk of brain infarction.
  • «Therapeutic window» (the time during which you can stop the death of brain cells) is 3 to 6 hours. The sooner you get help, the less the consequences of waiting for patient after stroke. In addition, this case will be significantly higher and the effectiveness of treatment.
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Memo: how to recognize a stroke?

Incident stroke outwardly manifested only in a few minutes after starting the death of brain cells. The first signs of heart attack and stroke brain (appear suddenly):

  • severe headache for no apparent reason;
  • weakness in one side of the body, impaired coordination (loss of balance, gait changes).
  • turbidity of consciousness (the patient does not understand where);
  • problematic speaking and understanding simple words;
  • double vision in one/both eyes;
  • nausea/vomiting.

If the person commits 2 or more of these symptoms required urgent medical attention. Often such symptoms appear after a short loss of consciousness. Symptoms recognized from the outside:

  • At the request to smile widely the patient with the incident of stroke will show the curve of the smile.
  • When asked to say a simple sentence clearly defines the problems with speech (slurred, lisping words).
  • When asked to show the language, a shift in language to one side, the curvature of its Central axis.
  • When asked to raise both hands the patient with stroke cannot perform this simple action.

If the person is unable to perform at least one of the above actions, he needs medical attention urgently. To transport the patient need maximum caution, excessive shaking may cause additional damage to the blood vessels of the brain.

Primary prevention of stroke

From a stroke can protect the following vital rules that should enter into the habit:

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  • Physical activity: regular activity, respectively the right condition.
  • Balanced diet: emphasis on vegetables, limiting salt, fat and starchy foods (cakes, fatty meat).
  • The fight against addictions: stop Smoking/drugs, limited alcohol consumption (a maximum of 1 glass of natural wine a day).
  • Annual Wellness blood testing (biochemistry, sugar, prothrombin, cholesterol).
  • The annual passage of instrumental studies — EKG, Doppler of cerebral vessels, test at the eye doctor fundus.
  • Proper treatment of diagnosed diseases provocateurs stroke hypotensive, antiarrhythmic and hypoglycemic agents.
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Secondary prevention

Patients who once suffered stroke or suffering from cerebral ischemia, the risk of recurrent stroke increases to 30%. Measures for prevention include all of the above recommendations. However, in this case it is necessary to give your body the maximum attention. After a stroke annually should undergo MRI of the brain (along with other studies and analyses), to comply strictly with medical advice on taking medicines.

Drug therapy

Protivodiabeticescoy therapy is a long-term treatment (1 month or more) reduces by 25% the risk of heart attack, stroke and sudden cardiac death. The best preparations contain:

  • acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin, Thrombotic ass, Cardiomagnyl) — prophylactic dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight;
  • dipyridamole — individual dose (75 – 225 mg/day or less);
  • clopidogrel more effective than aspirin, the dose is 75 mg/day.; this medicine should be used in monotherapy as in combination with aspirin in 2 times increases the risk of complications.

Antihypertensive treatment — the combination of Indapamide, a diuretic and antihypertensive drugs of Perindopril taken over 4 years, almost a third reduces the risk of stroke. Equally effective in the prevention of drug Ramipril.

Antiarrhythmic treatment with the drug Warfarin is shown to elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (lowers the frequency of hemorrhagic complications). In uncomplicated cases, appropriate Aspirin/Cardiomagnyl.

Lipid-lowering therapy — widely advertised statin drugs effectively warning the second violation of blood circulation in acute form after stroke, previously transferred. The best medicine — Pravastatin.

Surgical techniques

After ischemic attack (neurological symptoms persists for 24 hours), the risk of stroke increases significantly. A similar condition is often provoked by carotid artery stenosis. However, there is a radical solution — the operation of carotid endarterectomy.

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Surgical intervention is a resection of the internal carotid artery with its covering atherosclerotic plaques. In cases of complete closure of the lumen of the carotid artery by atherosclerotic plaque it is advisable to establish vascular microanastomosis. Operational methods significantly reduce the risk of stroke in the brain.