Stroke: symptoms, first signs, consequences
The term «stroke» defines an acute violation of blood circulation in the structures of the human nervous system. This is a severe condition in which the die area of the tissue. On average, each year in the world there are nearly 6 million cases of this disease. The success of treatment and subsequent rehabilitation depends on timely diagnosis, so it is important to know the first signs of this disease.
What is stroke, the mechanism of its development and the reasons
Cells of the nervous system (neurocity) are very sensitive to lack of oxygen and nutrients. In the case of circulatory disorders developing serious condition with loss of narocito, which is called a stroke. While the damaged area of the tissue ceases to perform its functions (most often motor and sensory) that is manifested by characteristic symptoms. Severe violation blood flow is of 2 main mechanisms:
- Reduction of the lumen of an arterial vessel feeding the tissue site.
- Bleeding directly into the tissue due to violations of the integrity of the wall of the feeding artery.
Also separately allocated hemorrhage in the subarachnoid or subarachnoid space of the cerebral meninges, in which the developing compression of the tissue with a sharp violation of blood flow in them. The main reason for the development is atherosclerosis of the arteries in which the inner surface of their walls is postponed cholesterol in the form of characteristic plaques. They reduce the lumen of the artery and covered with a layer of epithelial cells (endothelium).
In the case of a broken tyre atherosclerotic plaque cholesterol is in contact directly with the blood, which leads to instantaneous formation of a blood clot in stroke. There are several predisposing factors that significantly increase the likelihood of developing pathology:
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- Hypertension – increase the pressure of blood on walls of blood vessels, which can cause damage with hemorrhage or the formation of a blood clot.
- The change of activity of blood coagulation with an increased risk of formation of intravascular clots in any location.
- Genetic disruption of the formation of the walls of the arterial vessels with their increased fragility, which increases the risk of damage, even slight increase in blood pressure – such a reason can lead to the development of pathology in young people.
- Inflammatory disorders of the veins, by which the inflamed vessel wall forms the blood clot (thrombophlebitis).
- Benign vascular tumor (arterial malformation) in which is formed a ball, consisting of small vessels with subsequent bleeding from them.
In most cases (90%) the cause of the disease is atherosclerosis of the vessels with subsequent rupture of the tyre atherosclerotic plaque and intravascular thrombosis.
What are the first symptoms?
Violation of blood flow is an acute condition. It usually begins abruptly and includes a General cerebral and focal symptoms. The first signs appear cerebral symptoms, they may differ depending on the amount of damage to tissue and individual to individual:
- Severe headache that is migraine in nature – the sign of defeat of brain tissue, it is more pronounced for high blood pressure.
- Nausea and vomiting, not bringing relief.
- A change of consciousness in the form of confusion, maybe momentary loss of consciousness, stroke volume when there are signs of a coma with no consciousness more than one day.
- Violation of mental functions in the form of inhibition or excitation.
Before the development of cerebral symptoms may develop symptoms of a stroke, which include pronounced dizziness and a depressed mood. Then as the lesion develops neurocytol focal symptoms, which develop characteristic manifestations depending on localization of pathological process:
- The death of a section of the bark and trunk conductive fibers of the brain – is accompanied by impairments of motor function (inability to perform movements in the limbs on one side or both sides) and sensory function (loss of all kinds of sensitivity in certain areas of the body).
- Stem stroke is characterized by lesions of the brain stem. It is a severe form of the pathology, which in 2/3 of cases ends in death, manifested severe speech disorders, cardiac, fever and shortness of breath.
- Stroke spinal cord – tissue damage such localization is accompanied by severe pain in the spine, impaired motor and sensory function below the site of the stroke. Spinal stroke in the incidence of takes the second place after the stem of the brain damage.
- Stroke eyes is a rare form of pathology with lesions of the retina, characterized by decreased visual acuity up to complete absence.
The most common manifestation of this disorder is a symptom of disorders of brain functions. The development of recurrent stroke is always accompanied by a more severe course with pronounced changes in the functions of nervous system structures. The treatment of the disease is in the prompt restoration of blood flow and restoring lost functions of tissues.
The consequences emerging after a stroke
The severity of the violation of motor and sensory functions of the brain, as well as subsequent rehabilitation depends on the size and localization of lesions, the age of the patient. In most cases, full recovery of lost functions, it is impossible, therefore, is a recognition incapacitated sick person with applying for disability. In this regard, modern medicine is the basis of dealing with the pathology includes prevention activities.