Symptomatic arterial hypertension: symptoms and treatment
Symptomatic arterial hypertension is increase in blood pressure (BP), caused by another disease or certain medication. More common name – secondary arterial hypertension.
If the doctor thinks the patient may have secondary hypertension, the patient may need additional testing to detect other health problems. If we manage to cope with the underlying disease that causes hypertension, it can reduce the blood pressure to normal.
What are the causes of secondary hypertension?
Causes of symptomatic arterial hypertension:
- kidney disease (e.g., narrowing of the renal arteries, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease);
- certain drugs (e.g., contraceptives, amphetamines, appetite suppressants, some antidepressants, steroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs);
- hormonal disease (e.g., hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, Cushing’s disease);
- the abuse of alcohol;
- the syndrome of sleep apnea;
- narrowing of the aorta (coarctation).
How hormones affect blood pressure?
Hormones play an important role in controlling BP. They provide signals to the heart and blood vessels, changing blood volume. The body produces certain hormones (e.g. adrenaline) when it is under stress and needed additional volume of blood and oxygen. Symptomatic increase in blood pressure caused by hormone problems is rare. To such problems belong to:
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- Cushing’s Disease.
- Pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal glands).
- An excess of growth hormone.
- Diseases of the thyroid gland.
How HELL affects the kidneys?
Kidneys are required for control of HELL. During the passage of blood through them, special cells «measure» the pressure in the renal arteries and regulate the amount of their secreted hormone renin. Renin controls the production of two other hormones – angiotensin, and aldosterone, which control the width of the arteries and fluid and electrolyte balance, thereby affecting blood pressure. If the renal arteries are narrowed from atherosclerosis, the kidney gets less blood, which leads to increased blood pressure.
What are the secondary symptoms of hypertension?
The doctor may suspect secondary hypertension if:
- HELL the man rose suddenly.
- The patient is young, and his AD – 160/100 mm Hg. article or higher.
- High blood pressure remains at 160/100 mm Hg. article or higher even after taking several medications.
- There are signs of a health problems, which can lead to increased blood pressure.
- There are problems with the functioning of the kidneys.
- Absent family history of hypertension.
What complications can cause secondary hypertension?
Symptomatic hypertension may aggravate the underlying disease, which has become her cause. If untreated it can also lead to the development of the following complications:
- Damage to blood vessels (e.g., atherosclerosis or aneurysm).
- Heart failure.
- Metabolic syndrome.
- Difficulty with memory and cognitive impairment.
How to treat it?
In case of symptomatic hypertension is typically treat the cause of high blood pressure. Treatment of the patient depends on the underlying disease and on whether there is an urgent need for pressure reduction to prevent the development of health problems. If a disease caused the hypertension, blood pressure can return to normal, if it cure, but it is not always observed. If the cause is intake of certain drugs, the pressure can return to normal after cessation of their use or dose adjustment.
To maintain normal pressure is often a lifestyle change – eating healthy, increasing physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight. If these measures do not help, your doctor may prescribe certain medicines based on the cause of secondary hypertension:
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- Angiotensinase inhibitors of the enzyme.
- Blockers of receptors of angiotensin II.
- Calcium channel blockers.
- Direct renin inhibitor.
The lifestyle changes
In secondary hypertension, the lifestyle changes include:
- A healthy diet based on eating lots of vegetables and fruits, whole grains and low-fat dairy products, reducing the amount of fat in the diet.
- Reduction of salt intake.
- Maintaining a healthy weight.
- The increase in physical activity.
- The restriction of the use of alcoholic beverages.
- Quitting Smoking.
- The reduction of stress.