Symptoms of a heart attack, first aid
Heart attack is a serious situation requiring urgent medical assistance, which suddenly blocks the blood supply to the myocardium. Insufficiency of blood supply to the heart can cause severe damage to the myocardium. In the medical literature heart attack called acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
What is a heart attack?
Heart attack is a disease that is caused by interruption of the blood supply of the myocardium. After admission to the hospital, most patients exhibited a diagnosis of angina or myocardial infarction.
Causes of heart attack
A heart attack is called sudden cessation of blood supply to the myocardium. Like other tissues and organs, the heart requires continuous delivery of oxygen-rich blood. Without this, the myocardium is damaged and may die. In the absence of proper treatment the heart cells receive irreversible damage. If you killed a lot of them, you might die from a heart attack.
The leading cause of ACS is atherosclerosis of the arteries of the heart. During a heart attack one of the atherosclerotic plaques ruptures, which leads to the formation on its surface of the clot. This blood clot blocks the coronary artery lumen and blocks blood flow to the heart, which may precipitate ACS. Rarely, a heart attack is called:
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- Drug that can cause spasm of the coronary arteries, limiting blood flow to the myocardium and triggering a heart attack. This is a frequent cause of sudden death during a heart attack in people of young age.
- Hypoxia if the oxygen level falls due to carbon monoxide poisoning or malfunction of the lungs, the heart gets reoxygenating blood. This leads to oxygen starvation of the myocardium and the development of ACS.
- Aneurysm of the coronary arteries. When rupture of the disturbed blood supply to the heart, causing a heart attack.
How to recognize a heart attack?
ACS is a disease that carries the danger of life of any person. Therefore, it is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of a heart attack and immediately call an ambulance. The sooner people with ACS will receive the qualified medical help, the more chances of him to survive and to preserve the ability to work. The symptoms of ACS may be different in different people. In adults the clinical picture of heart attack include:
- Pain in the chest (angina attack).
- Analogues pain can be the feeling of compression, tightness and tension in the chest.
- Pain in other places – people may feel that the pain goes from the chest to the arm (usually the left), jaw, neck, back and stomach.
- Dizziness and confusion.
- Shortness of breath.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- An overwhelming sense of anxiety and fear of death.
- Coughing and wheezing in the lungs when breathing.
Although in most cases the pain syndrome is expressed very strongly, some people a heart attack is accompanied by more vague symptoms and signs. Sometimes in women, older patients and people with diabetes in ACS is absent, the pain in the chest. Typical anginal attack is more common in men.
What to do during a heart attack?
During a heart attack you should:
- Immediately call an ambulance. You can’t ignore the symptoms of ACS and to wait until they disappear for longer than 5 minutes. You can call medical assistance at home or ask someone to take the patient to the hospital. In any case be patient to get behind the wheel of a car in this condition, as it puts him and other people in danger.
- Man with pain in the region of the heart need to sit or lie down, keep calm.
- It is also necessary to remove or unfasten any tight clothing.
- Need to chew and swallow Aspirin if the person is not allergic to it, or the doctor has forbidden its reception.
- If available – must be put under the tongue Nitroglycerin tablet or spray oral spray of Nitroglycerin.
- While waiting for the arrival of the ambulance crew not to tense up, you need to avoid physical exertion.
If a person with symptoms of a heart attack and lost consciousness, there is a high probability that he had a cardiac arrest. Signs of clinical death, which may detect the surrounding people:
- The lack of breathing.
- The lack of movement.
- Lack of response to handling and touch.
If these signs you need to start cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Ideally, it is best to attach to the victim a special device – automated external defibrillator, which will be chaired by the CPR. Modern recommendations on CPR around the injured people are permitted to carry out only chest compressions. To do this:
- You need to place the basis of one brush to the center of the sternum and the other arm placed on her from above. The elbows should be straight.
- Using body weight, press on the chest to bend her 5 – 6cm deep.
- These clicks should be repeated until arrival of an ambulance.
- Frequency of clicks is 100 – 120 per minute.
- If first aid is provided by several people, they can swap places as ustawiania.
Using the automatic defibrillator must follow his commands.
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