Symptoms of minor stroke
A third of inpatient and outpatient nearly half of the patients with stroke – people who have had a minor stroke of the brain. 25% of mini-strokes be the first sign of a covertly occurring or previously undiagnosed cerebrovascular disease.
Almost half of patients who have had mini-strokes over the next five years underlying disease develop clinically deployed CVA. On the extraordinary prevalence of this pathology is further evidenced by the fact that one in four men aged 21 to 55 years, according to statistical studies, takes a minor stroke.
What is called a mini-stroke?
Sudden disruption of blood supply to any part of brain structures, showing acute cerebral dysfunction in the form of General or focal neurological signs, referred to as stroke or stroke. If the duration of the stroke is limited to the period of time up to several hours, say about the transitory NMK, often in the home called a minor stroke. The main distinguishing feature of a microinsult is a complete reversal of all neurological symptoms within days. Pnmc patients can occur in the form of:
- transient ischemic attacks;
- cerebral hypertensive crises, in particular, acute hypertensive encephalopathy;
- complications of cerebrovascular disease;
- the effects of traumatic brain injuries;
- unconscious of the paroxysms, for example, during sharp turns of the head, causing compression of the vertebral artery.
Why am I having mini-strokes
Violation of blood circulation of brain regions in the mini-strokes most often occur as a result of:
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- spazmirovannah vessels supplying these areas;
- of mikrotromboza and microembolization vessels affected by atheromatosis, the lumen of which is narrowed by deposits of atherosclerotic plaques;
- reflex cremonesi stenosis of the main arteries of the head, provoking acute ischemia of certain areas of the brain and occurs when a sudden arterial hypotension caused by extensive blood loss or acute heart dysfunction;
- microhemorrhages cerebral incident.
To diseases that can cause similar pathological processes in the brain structure of the patient, include:
- essential hypertension;
- secondary hypertension;
- progressive tserebroskleroz;
- inflammatory lesions of cerebral vessels in the connective tissue;
- acute cardiac pathology in the form of valve defects or myocardial infarction;
- atherosclerotic narrowing of the origin of the vertebral arteries, especially occurring on the background of degenerative disc disease and spondylosis of the cervical portion of the spine.
What is manifest mini-strokes?
Since the first signs of a stroke are nonspecific and short-lived, patients often do not consider it necessary to bother and to go to the doctor. The clinical picture pnmc sometimes perceived by patients as the consequences of fatigue, physical or mental, or as manifestations of chronic stress tension. The clinical picture of stroke primarily has obsrevations color, manifested:
- headache of varying intensity and localization.
- system dizziness, sometimes quite severe;
- a loud noise in the head;
- sudden nausea, sometimes vomiting;
- confusion, fear, excitement or drowsiness;
- transient amnesia and disorientation;
- vegetative signs – a sensation of heat, sweating, tachycardia, dryness of the mouth.
Focal symptoms of mini-strokes characterize the localization of circulatory disorders in the brain structure of the patient. Clinically it is manifested:
- slight numbness in the limbs and weakening its power;
- the asymmetry of the face;
- speech disorders – inability to coherently or speak clearly;
- vision disorders – alleviating and limiting the field of view;
- sudden loss of hearing.
In the last decade of American neurologists in the diagnostic Arsenal of NMK was introduced this symptom dystextia, which means the inability of the patient to make a coherent message on the screen of the mobile phone.
What is the rule of the «Strike»?
For the successful treatment pnmk is critical to timely detection. To determine immediately that the patient has suffered from stroke, helps the use of a mnemonic device I-l-A-R, in which each letter means a consistent diagnostic step:
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- U – smile – if she’s «curvy», that is asymmetric, a suspected stroke is confirmed;
- D – motion while lifting both hands or toes have suffered from a stroke one extremity will be left behind;
- A – articulation – affected stroke patients slurred speech, lethargic;
- R – the decision – if the patient detected at least one of these deviations from the normal state, the decision about applying to a SMP.
A call to the EMS system needs to be urgent, because the victim of a stroke must be delivered to the hospital within the next hour. Referring to the SMP Manager, you must list all the characteristics that were identified in applying diagnostic log «KICK». This will contribute to the speedy arrival of a special neurological team. In anticipation of the brigade SMP should:
- to put the patient in the supine position, placing under his head a pillow so that the head and neck were on one line and at an angle not exceeding 30 degrees to his body;
- take care of the comfort of the patient, unbuttoning the tight collar and the belt, loosening the tie;
- try to convince him to limit physical activity;
- to eliminate meal and drink, after all, with the possible paralysis of the muscles of the pharynx food and water can not get into the esophagus, and into the respiratory tract of the patient, which will cause choking;
- rotate the head of the patient with vomiting so as to ensure the outflow of vomit outside and prevent its inhalation.
The lack of patient consciousness and breathing and agonal breathing, are familiar to the immediate start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The absence of a pulse is not considered anymore the only condition for carrying out resuscitation. Loss of consciousness and lack of breathing of the patient is consistent with the requirements for implementation of resuscitation of the complexes, carried out according to the scheme 2:30, which means:
- 2 – number of respiratory constraints;
- 30 – the number of effective taps hands are straightened in elbows hands on the lower third of the sternum.
How to treat mini-strokes?
Treatment of mini-strokes, as well as any other kind of stroke in the acute period requires the patient’s stay in hospital. General therapeutic plan includes events of emergency and subsequent long-term gradual rehabilitation period. Urgent therapeutic measures in the treatment of patients with mini-strokes consist of:
- stabilizing life support basic functions of treatment;
- the prevention and treatment of complications;
- supporting the metabolism and homeostasis of the brain specific therapy;
- thrombolytic agent treatment;
- reducing the risks of tromboobrazovania antiplatelet therapy;
- restoring the rheological properties of blood events.
At the end of inpatient treatment the patient should be observed and treated on an outpatient basis, for a long period of time to make a neuroprotectant and undergo physical and psychological rehabilitation.
Effects of mini strokes
Whether full recovery after mini-strokes, depends on many factors, including the patient’s age, the timeliness and adequacy of treatment and the severity of the disease, caused it. In elderly patients, for example, even after three months after prmc find:
- reduced power in the affected limbs;
- the impairment in cognitive and adaptive abilities;
- emotional distress in the form of depression and anxiety.
After a minor stroke, is transferred to the legs of patients with permanently reduced memory, lost the ability to effective concentration. Studies have proven a link between past mini stroke and dysfunction of the substantia nigra in the brain that can serve as the impetus for the development of the patient Parkinsonian syndrome manifested by tremor and convulsive spasms in his hands.