Syndrome of arterial hypertension
Among the diseases first place in the worldwide distribution is firmly in cardiovascular disease and their complications (heart attacks and strokes) are leading causes of mortality. In turn, to cardiovascular pathologies the first place is hypertension, which is based on the most common among the population syndrome of hypertension. What is he like?
What is the difference of syndrome symptom
Medical science, like any long-shaped kind of knowledge has its own terminology. Words such as «symptoms» or «syndromes» are common, but each of them has its particular meaning. Syndrome is the basic «unit» of any diagnosis.
Each diagnosis is «constructed» from the syndromes, as the house has floors, basement and attic. Syndromes are divided into individual symptoms (signs) of the disease. And if the syndrome can be compared with «major structural elements» of the building diagnosis, symptoms, with individual bricks.
The structure of the hypertensive syndrome
Because hypertension is formed of hypertensive syndrome (which is logical), take a look at read more with its internal structure. Hypertension the key damaging factor is high blood pressure, which affects almost the entire body. Syndrome of arterial hypertension consists of the following elements:
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- the basis of the syndrome – high blood pressure more than 14090 mm RT. article;
- the defeat of target organs (myocardium, kidneys, retina of the eye) are signs of long-continued exposure to high pressure; left ventricular myocardium hypertrophies in the blood vessels of the kidneys and retina of the eye symptoms of hypertensive nephropathy and retinopathy;
- kidneys leak protein into the urine due to the increase of the input pressure, the protein found in the urine (microalbuminuria);
- signs of overload of the left ventricle at the ECG;
- indicators of the level of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein in the blood (the degree of clogging of the blood vessels);
- the consequence of the previous point is the atherosclerosis of the main arteries (carotid, iliac, aorta).
Please note that these symptoms can be completely invisible to the patient, as it may not feel «high pressure» not have a clue about the defeat of the vessels and hemodynamic overload of the left heart. But these signs are extremely important for the diagnosis of arterial hypertension, because they can be calculated quantitatively and assess the degree of development of the syndrome. Even the degree of myocardial hypertrophy can be easily determined during ultrasound of the heart, when it can be easy to calculate, estimating the thickness. For simple formulas, the ECG can derive a quantitative indicator. This index is the index name Sokolov-Lyons.
In addition to these independent features, which are particularly valuable because they are not affected by the changing views of the patient, there are many subjective symptoms, which appear in the early stages of the disease. These symptoms are as follows:
- headache associated with high blood pressure;
- the decrease in visual acuity, the appearance of transient disorders while increasing the pressure (flashing «flies» before the eyes of photopsias);
- redness of the face and the skin;
- the occurrence of attacks of palpitations;
- nocturia (prevalence of night urine volume over the day).
In the later stages of expressed complications. See the following symptoms:
- signs of hypertensive encephalopathy;
- the emergence of congestive heart failure due to the breakdown of compensatory mechanisms;
- ischemic strokes;
- other diseases which are based on running hypertension.
About secondary hypertension
It should be said that the syndrome of hypertension may not necessarily be primary. Only in the case when the patient is thoroughly examined and the doctors found no reason for the development of this syndrome, exhibited the diagnosis of «essential hypertension» or «hypertension».
If the cause of pressure increase is found, and it can be cured, the hypertension is considered a syndrome and not dominated in diagnosis. For example, stenosis of the renal arteries, the pressure in a closed system vessels blood circulation will be improved. After the operation, the pressure will again be back to normal. Here is the place of renal hypertension.
Overcame hypertension for 1 month
After 10 years of struggle with the disease Oleg Tabakov has told how was able to get rid of hypertension.
When hormonally active tumors of the adrenal cortex pheochromocytoma, the blood receives a lot of adrenaline, as it it produces. As a result, blood pressure rises to significant digits, and with bilateral lesions of the adrenal glands for hypertension becomes malignant, krizovy character. In this case also has a case of symptomatic hypertension.
Because hypertension is never developed immediately (it is preceded by a long period of hidden changes), you need to carefully monitor the health and prevent the recruitment of excess weight, comply with physical activity, eat right, give up bad habits and regularly monitor blood pressure.