Tachycardia: symptoms and treatment
Tachycardia is one of the most common disorders in the cardiovascular system. Often this condition is physiological and does not even require specific treatment, however, there are cases when increasing the frequency of contractions of the heart seriously wonder about the state of health of the patient.
What is tachycardia?
Actually, it’s simple. Tachycardia is called the acceleration of the heart and increase the heart rate more than 100 (in some cases we are talking about the figure «90») beats per minute. This condition can be associated with vastly different characteristics of the organism, both physiological and pathological. In children pathology occurs as often as in adults.
If to speak about norm, that the heart can speed up their work while improving the body temperature of the patient’s being in a stuffy room, after exercise, stress and emotional upheavals (including good news), pain and the presence of other factors. With regard to pathology, is more complicated. Often tachycardia is not a disease, but rather one of clinical manifestations of problems with the cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine and other organ systems.
Pathological reasons for tachycardia
To disease that causes acceleration of the heart include:
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- heart failure;
- myocardial infarction;
- left ventricular dysfunction;
- severe form of angina pectoris;
- myocarditis (myocardial inflammation), irrespective of the underlying cause of their occurrence;
- cardiosclerosis (replacement of the heart muscle tissue by connective tissue);
- heart disease;
- endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of on — endocardium) associated with bacterial kill;
- pericarditis (inflammation of pericardium);
- dysfunction of the cerebral cortex;
- neuroses and psychoses;
- thyrotoxicosis (excessive amount of thyroid hormones secreted by thyroid gland);
- pheochromocytoma (hormonal tumor);
- anemia (anemia);
- shock and collapse;
- a great loss of blood;
- hypoxemia (insufficient oxygen concentration in the blood);
- loss of consciousness;
- infectious diseases (tonsillitis, tuberculosis, sepsis), etc.
Classification of the disease
Depending on the specific cause, which causes an increase in heart rate, there are several varieties of tachycardia. Sinus form usually develops slowly, for it is not so typical V-tach. The root cause of the disease in this case is the sinus node, which is the main source of the heart.
Paroxysmal tachycardia is associated with disorders of the generators of the rhythm is outside the sinus node. If it is in the Atria, the disease is called «supraventricular tachycardia», if the ventricles – «ventricular». For paroxysmal form is characterized by attacks of disease, which occur fast and quickly stop. They can last up to several days.
Symptoms of tachycardia
Basic signs of disease is the acceleration of the heart, which can often feel even the patient himself, as well as a feeling of lack of air and pain behind the breastbone. Other possible symptoms may include dizziness and headaches, sudden shortness of breath, weakness and loss of function, loss of consciousness, drop in blood pressure, etc.
Often the patient do not experience any unpleasant symptoms, does not feel pain, and indeed his condition is not causes the patient to worry. In this case, after the diagnosis can be revealed very serious violations in the work of the heart.
Needless to treat them, because they do not cause trouble? Of course, because even the absence of clinical manifestations does not mean the absence of effects on the body and, accordingly, does not deprive the patient of the risk of heart failure, stroke and other serious disorders of the cardiovascular and nervous systems.
Diagnosis of tachycardia
To identify the tachycardia enough for a full examination and careful questioning of the patient. His complaints and also heart rate measurement will help to determine the presence of disease. However, in order to understand what type of pathology to be treated, you should definitely resort to more careful methods of diagnosis.
A common blood test used to detect anemia, renal abnormalities and problems with the thyroid hormones. ECG is also used. Signs of tachycardia may be different, but in most cases this method is necessary for evaluating the electrical impulses generated in the heart, evaluation of the mechanism of the organs and identify problems with conductivity.
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Holter monitoring similar to electrocardiography. The difference is that with a reduced apparatus for electrocardiogram the patient wears during the day. In this way, the individual maintains a small diary, where with respect to time indicates what he was up to at all times: when he ate, went to the toilet, slept, went for the procedure and so the Method used to determine when the patient was worried about tachycardia, what are its causes, etc.
Electrophysiology study allows to determine the type of rhythm disorder of the authority’s work, the origin of the disease, and in some cases even a therapeutic purpose. The peculiarity of the method consists in introducing a special catheter into a vein through a microscopic incision and advancing it to the heart from the parallel operation control thanks to the connected monitor.
Treatment of tachycardia
Treatment is appointed individually depending on the characteristics of the disease. Can be prescribed drugs unrelated to the heart (iron-containing medicinal products for elimination of anemia; drugs that slow the thyroid gland, antibacterial tablets, etc.).
Not less important is the correct way of life — adjusted diet, no bad habits, and possible systematic exercise. Remember that in most cases diseases are caused by our actions, so watch out for the strict observance of recommendations of the doctor and do not self-medicate.