That means an increased level of ALT in the blood?
The blood in your hand, often is the «Chinese alphabet» for the patient, not related to medicine. However, all complex concepts and figures need to have at least a General idea what it means. Consider at this stage such a figure as the level of alanine aminotransferase in the blood.
This figure can be reduced in different ways and in laboratories designated by such abbreviations as ALT or Alat. The analysis on the ALT for the diagnosis of hepatic pathologies, diseases of the pancreas, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. To do this analysis in any private lab or clinic the various forms of ownership.
The main function performed in the body alanine transaminase is an exchange of amino acids. Alanine is also involved in the formation of glucose in humans. ALT is produced mainly in the liver, only a small part of it is produced by the kidneys, skeletal muscles, pancreas and myocardium. If these organs are damaged (e.g., damage to the liver cells – hepatocytes), the level of ALT in the blood is elevated. A healthy person has quite a small amount of this enzyme in the blood plasma. Biochemical analysis of ALT is carried out in cases of suspected liver damage, effects of drugs on the liver.
Who prescribed the analysis on the ALT?
Analysis of ALT is prescribed for the following patient:
Pressure fell below normal?
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Analysis recommend that those patients who are at risk for the following reasons:
- contact with a person suffering from hepatitis;
- genetic predisposition (the presence of relatives have problems with a liver);
- diabetes mellitus;
- the abuse of alcohol;
This analysis is carried out to all who want to become a blood donor.
Preparation for assay
To obtain truthful results of the analysis the patient should prepare for the exam. Blood, usually pass early in the morning on an empty stomach, the level of ALT in blood is the most stable and correspond to reality. A week before the tests need to abstain from alcohol, seek medical advice on accepted medicines. Eight hours before blood is impossible. Blood for research is taken from a vein in vacuum tubes. To determine the level of serum ALT is investigated.
The normal levels of the enzyme
The alanine transaminase level in a healthy person is low, however, throughout his life, he is unstable. For example, newborns have elevated levels of the enzyme, because they have physiological jaundice is a significant release into the blood before the birth of hemoglobin. Within one month the hemoglobin to disintegrate, coming to normal, but at the same time, the decay produces bilirubin, which determines the color of the skin of newborns. This phenomenon is absolutely normal for children this period of life.
First blood sampling in the newborn shows about 49 – 50 units per liter (u/l) enzyme in the next six months, the alanine aminotransferase level will increase up to 60. In the second half of baby’s life level will decrease slightly – to 54, but for three years his record will be normal to reach 33. The next three years is considered normal figure 29 – 30. From the age of six, the figure is again characterized by instability over the past six years it rises to nearly forty, but in the period of sexual development is markedly reduced. Here already comes into force on sexual differentiation of boys have a normal 27 units/liter, and girls 24.
In adults, the figure is around 40 – 41 for men and 30 – 31 for women. During pregnancy in women, the level of alanine transaminase may be increased during pregnancy but only in the first three months, which is the norm for this period, but in the later stages of the survey, indicates preeclampsia. The severity of the condition is directly proportional to the number of ALT in the analysis results. Alanine aminotransferase also increased in inflammatory processes in the body.
The causes of increase the rate
A blood test and the presence of pathology in the body produces elevated levels of ALT in some tens, and even hundred times. For example, if the patient suffers from fatty degeneration of the liver, the level increases to 2 times, with myocardial infarction is 5 times that of alcoholic hepatitis – an average of 6 times, muscular dystrophy – 8 times, but in acute hepatitis, ALT increased «rolls over» twenty times above normal.
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Difficult to recognize a slight increase of the enzyme, as they may indicate a serious neoplastic lesions of the organs. In addition, the increase in Alt may occur as a result of the presence in a patient of acute pancreatitis, viral infections, hematopoietic disorders, shock States, excessive physical exertion, burns, mononucleosis, irrational nutrition, over-consumption of nutritional supplements. Also, the patient should inform the doctor if he is taking steroid remedies, hormonal contraceptives, immunosuppressants, choleretic and psychotropic substances, which may affect the picture of the study.
Normalization of enzyme levels
In order to stabilize the level of alanine aminotransferase, it is necessary to focus on treatment of the underlying disease that caused the jump in ALT. If the problem is in the liver and biliary tract, the doctor may prescribe hepatoprotectors, choleretic drug, drugs to normalize the digestive processes.
If ALT is elevated because of the provocative drugs toxic to the liver, you should consult with a specialist, appointed them, and to replace the funds for the same medicines. You also need to pay attention to the nutrition of the patient, to diversify his diet with vitamin foods (fish, vegetables, dairy products and protein). On the table should appear nuts, whole wheat bread, carrots, lean meat, but the salt level is recommended to reduce.
If there is no reason to suspect high levels of the enzyme, the analysis redone in two weeks. False results can be caused by the following factors: poisoning by chemicals, stress, alcohol, significant physical activity, had surgery, chemotherapy treatment methods.