The child’s blood increased leukocytes: causes
White blood cells — one of the most important indicators of blood, which reflects the state of the organism and the presence/absence of inflammatory reaction. Especially roughly react to various irritants to the circulatory system in children. However, the increased content of leukocytes does not always mean a serious deviation in the child’s body. Even the slightest exposure (physical load, etc.) can trigger the baby the rise of white blood cells. That is why, seeing the blood of the child in the high rate of leukocytes, it is not necessary to sound the alarm. Only watching the baby, the pediatrician will explain the reason for such a shift and, if necessary, prescribe treatment.
Leukocytes: the main function of white blood cells
Leukocytes can be called young «defenders» of the body. Synthesized by the bone marrow, these cells rush to the injury site (inflammation, injury), actively fight infection and promote rapid recovery. There are several types of white blood cells (WBC). Some of them, the phagocytes, destroy foreign agents. Other, eosinophils respond to allergic substances. Third, lymphocytes are responsible for antibody production and immunity.
The rules of giving blood
The leukocyte count varies during the day. The child increase can cause:
- physical activity (active games before testing);
- stay in the cold.
In order to eliminate the impact of these factors, the blood pass in the morning, preferably on an empty stomach.
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Norma leukocytes in a child
We should not compare the blood of a child with an adult analysis. The growth of the baby (from birth to 10 years) the number of leukocytes varies considerably. Normal age-related indices of leukocytes (х109/l):
- Day 1 — 8,5 – 24,5;
- 1 month — 6,5 – 13,8;
- 6 months — 5,5 – 12,5;
- up to 1 year — from 6.0 to 12.0;
- 1-4 years — 6,1 – 12,0;
- 4-10 years — 5,2 – 11,4;
- 10 years — 4,5 – 10,0.
Physiological changes and the ratio of leukocyte (defined in %):
- stab: newborns — 1 – 17; 1 month – 1 year — 0,5 – 4,0; over — 0,5 – 5,0;
- segmented: in newborns — 45 – 80; up to 1 year — 15 – 45; up to 6 years — 25 – 60; up to 12 years old — 35 – 65;
- eosinophils: newborns — 0,5 – 6,0, further 1 to 4;
- basophils: in any age group of 0 – 1;
- monocytes: at any age 4 – 8;
- lymphocytes: newborns — 12 – 36; 1 month — 49 – 76; 6 months — 42 – 74; 1 year — 38 – 72; 1 – 6 years — 26 – 60, older — 24 – 54.
Sometimes to confirm the diagnosis and clarify the factor that provoked leukocytosis, it is important to record the deviation of certain types of leukocytes. So often, along with determining the total number of leukocytes in children’s blood is the leukocyte count.
Why would they raise the white blood cell count?
If the child’s white blood cells increased in comparison with the age norm diagnosed leukocytosis. It is impossible to give a definite answer as to why the child is recorded leukocytosis. Leukocytosis of blood — only a sign of abnormalities in the body, the true cause of which can be ascertained only in the analysis of symptoms and evaluation of blood parameters. Often the factors that cause leukocytosis in the blood of the kid, was harmless enough:
- The change of power
Leukocytosis in neonates not always indicate a morbid condition, therefore, a normal leukocyte count before 1 year is so variable. The white blood cells babies are physiologically increased during the period of introduction of complementary foods (with the intake of new, unknown proteins), the transition from breastfeeding to artificial, and even when changing the manufacturer of baby food.
- Climate change
Children’s bodies are very sensitive. Therefore, even the sudden arrival of cold weather, the establishment of hot weather or prolonged exposure to the sun kids react slight leukocytosis. Radical climate change (trains in a hot country) causes long-lasting changes in blood composition.
- Eating large amounts of animal products
Meat in the child’s body are alien antibodies. Therefore, in children-meat-lovers-resistant fixed a slight leukocytosis.
- Taking certain medicines
The impact of drugs on the blood quite difficult. Some of them (Biseptol) with a long reception cause eosinophilia on a background of a General decline in white blood cells and corticosteroids cause a persistent increase in total leukocytic index.
- A stressful situation
Any anxiety the child’s body perceives as a threat. Therefore, even a slight fright or psychological stress (the unspoken emotions, problems at school) increase the number of blood guard. However, changes often are temporary and disappear without treatment after some time after the removal of psychological stimulus.
- Physical activity
Don’t worry if your excessive rolling of the baby revealed a slight leukocytosis. Physical exertion make the whole body, including the hematopoietic system, to work in emergency mode.
- The pre-condition
Girls in adolescence often elevated white blood cell count observed during the premenstrual period. This physiological deviation in need of correction. However, do not exclude the possibility of pregnancy, if a woman has already established menstrual cycle.
Serious causes of leukocytosis in children
Any invasion (bacterial, viral or fungal), the body reacts almost instantly increase protective cells called white blood cells. In the first days of the disease is observed the maximum upturn of this indicator, but even after recovery (in the absence of symptoms) may persist a slight leukocytosis.
Leukocytosis is characteristic for the usual childhood infections (ARI, SARS, chickenpox, rubella, cystitis) and for more severe pathologies (tuberculosis, hepatitis, brucellosis).
- Worm infestation
Any intestinal parasites (more common in children identified worms, especially if you have cats/dogs and staying in your own home) provoke elevated white blood cell count and a high level of eosinophils.
The ingested allergen is immediately reflected leukocytosis. Leukocyte aggression is directed at alien sensitizing proteins. In the place of the introduction of the allergen causes inflammation (swelling, redness, itching), indicating the involvement of leukocytes. Also an indispensable part of allergies is eosinophilia. Changes in the blood can cause minor allergic reactions (e.g. urticaria) or more severe sensitization (asthma, angioedema).
Even a minor injury (a splinter, a small abrasion) is reflected in the blood picture. The bone marrow produces more white blood cells to fight damage and promote healing. Thus, the larger the area of damage (e.g. burns, fractures), the higher the level of white blood cells.
- Diseases of the spleen
Spleen — on recycling outdated term of leukocytes. Her injury or splenectomy (surgical removal of the spleen) observed a significant, long-term fixed leukocytosis.
- Blood loss, hemolytic anemia
The decrease in the number of red blood cells in connection with blood loss or anemia causes the bone marrow to work in the strengthened mode. Thus synthesized and a new (immature) leukocyte cells, therefore, almost always to the States accompanied by leukocytosis.
- Endocrine pathology
For example, in hypothyroidism (insufficient thyroid function) is observed basophilia — increase in the level of basophils.
- Autoimmune disorders
The most serious causes of leukocytosis are rooted in the autoimmune aggression of the white blood cells against its own cells. The failure that led to this pathological condition, is observed in lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.
A very important symptom: very often in Oncology in the blood revealed a large number of monocytes. The fluctuation of the white blood cells of 0.1 – 300 x 109/l (from radiation to massive leukocytosis) is observed in leukemia — a cancerous degeneration of leukocytes.
The reasons for the elevation are numerous: from physiological changes before pathological conditions. Treatment of leukocytosis as such is not carried out. Drug therapy should be aimed at eliminating the causes of this change in the blood. On a properly prescribed treatment and the recovery process will speak a gradual normalization of leukocytes in the blood.
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Serious danger is represented by the state if the child’s leukocyte count increased to 30 x 109/l (especially with concomitant anemia and thrombocytopenia). If you measure 100 x 109/l require immediate consultation of a hematologist.