The first signs of myocardial infarction in women, symptoms, first aid
Signs of myocardial infarction – a set of symptoms, indicating necrotic lesions of the portion of the heart muscle. They have varying degrees of severity in each case. Treatment prognosis of the disease is in direct proportion to the speed of the beginning of medical care during a heart attack. The optimal time of the first stage of therapy is less than 3 hours. In men younger than 49 years acute myocardial infarction is found in the majority of cases. In women older than 50 years, this diagnosis often leads to death. Mortality from myocardial infarction continues to increase. In 1965 it was 22 cases per 100 000 population. By 2012, this figure reached 47.
What are the risk factors for myocardial infarction?
Factors that in 92% of cases are preceded by acute myocardial infarction:
- genetic predisposition;
- Smoking – this causes a vascular accident in 35%;
- lack of exercise;
- age and gender indicators;
- improper diet;
- increased levels of stress in 32% of cases are preceded by acute myocardial infarction;
- violation of the balance between load and rest.
A person with 3 or more risk factors increases the likelihood of incurring myocardial infarction by 200% or more.
The symptoms of acute myocardial infarction
The signs of the disease in women appear long before changes in the myocardium become irreversible. Disturbing factors are:
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- Pain. It is localized in the chest (left side or middle), in the upper third of the stomach, the back and teeth of the lower jaw. The pain spreads to the shoulder region, left shoulder and left forearm. It can be burning, pressing, compression, acute. The pain has a different intensity and is not relieved by taking Nitroglycerin or non-narcotic analgesics.
- Shortness of breath. Shortness of breath may occur even after minor physical exertion, when the change of body position or complete rest. Shortness of breath similar to an asthma attack. It does not decrease from the use of the inhaler.
- Hypotension. The pressure decrease can be substantial, relative to the normal threshold.
- General weakness, dizziness.
- Sweating. Hyperhidrosis occurs even in cool room and no extra physical exertion.
- Changing the sensitivity in the upper extremities. Numbness, tingling, reduced sensory acuity in the fingers, hands, forearms.
- Complaints from the digestive system. Nausea, vomiting and heartburn mask the presence of pathology of the heart.
- Violation of cardiac rhythm.
- Discoordination movements. Unsteady gait and blurred speech are the most frequent manifestations of the disease.
- Anxiety, panic state, fear of death.
What are the options of myocardial infarction exist?
Myocardial infarction is a dangerous disease. It is difficult to identify due to the presence of several clinical variants:
- Classic. In this case, there is a pain behind the breastbone in the center or left. She stops after taking Nitroglycerin and analgesics.
- Asthmatic. The leading complaints are not pain, and shortness of breath that persist after taking anti-asthmatic remedies.
- Gastralgia. It is easily mistaken for disease of the digestive system. In this case, complaints of abdominal pain, heartburn, nausea and bloating are observed on the background of hypotension, tachycardia and weakness.
- Cerebral. In this case, the clinical picture mimics a stroke. Violation of movements, sensation, speech and mind can be mistaken for pathology of the blood supply of the brain.
- Asymptomatic. This type characterizes the absence of pain and other significant complaints.
What to do if you suspect a heart attack?
The risk of death in women increase with each hour of delay of treatment. If you have the slightest suspicion of the presence of myocardial infarction, need for urgent measures:
- To call an ambulance without wasting time and to report any suspicion of a vascular catastrophe.
- To put a woman on a surface with slightly raised head end. If she has shortness of breath, you need to give the patient a sitting position with legs down.
- To ensure free breathing (to untie his tie, unbutton the top button, loosen the belt) and the flow of air rich in oxygen (open a window).
- It is necessary to give medication. First aid before the arrival of the doctor would be to receive half a tablet of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) and 1 tablet of Nitroglycerin. If the doctor is delayed, a possible re-admission of Nitroglycerin (only with normal or high blood pressure) after 20 to 30 minutes not to exceed 3 tablets. Aspirin it is better to chew.
- In the case of panic and fear of death therapy, sedatives. This may come Valocordin, Korvalol or Valerian tincture.
- If there is pain recommended analgesics.
What not to do.
Before the arrival of the ambulance must comply with the rules. Absolutely contraindicated in the following:
- transporting the patient to the hospital (and walking, and driving);
- physical activity;
- the use of alcohol to reduce pain;
- applying heating pads on the chest – this can significantly worsen the condition of the patient, especially if you have shortness of breath.
Prevention of recurrent myocardial infarction
In the complex of measures on prevention of recurrent myocardial infarction includes:
- Receiving proper treatment and rehabilitation of the first heart attack.
- Following the recommended diet. Its features is a reduced level of fat and salt. Excluded from the diet sausages, pies, fatty meats, butter.
- Getting rid of bad habits. Tobacco causes significant harm to the body and is a risk factor for myocardial infarction.
- The optimal level of physical activity (walking, swimming) with control of blood pressure and heart rate.
- The medication recommended by your doctor. Antiplatelet agents, hypotensive and hypocholesteremic funds must be taken regularly.