The lipid spectrum of blood: deciphering the
Lipid profile, or blood lipids is a complex of indicators characterizing the quantity and ratio of different fractions of fat in the blood of the patient. The analysis is primarily necessary for those patients who already have heart disease, blood vessels, or they have a high risk of these diseases. It is known that excess amount of «bad» cholesterol in the blood leads to its deposition on the walls of damaged blood vessels. Gradually formed plaques that clog the lumen of the vessel and threaten to dangerous complications such as heart attacks or strokes. Timely detection of high-cholesterol will help to prevent these complications.
What indicators are included in lipidogramu?
- Total cholesterol, or cholesterol is very important for the body lipid. Part of it is formed in liver cells, and the part outside with food. Cholesterol is included in the lipid layer of all cell membranes, is involved in the formation of some steroids (hormones). The shortage of cholesterol can reduce levels of hormones that impede the maturation, growth and development. In addition, the lipid involved in the formation of bile acids, which are necessary for normal breakdown of fats in the stomach and their absorption in the intestine. Normal blood cholesterol should be no more than of 5.15 mmol/l; 6.2 mmol/l – borderline, more than these figures – pathology.
- Triglycerides are fats that are derivatives of glycerol. After absorption in the intestine, triglycerides circulate in the blood and then deposited in adipose tissue «in reserve». In between meals they are quick and serve as the main source of energy for the cells and tissues. Normal triglycerides should not exceed 2.25 mmol/l. Finnish scientists have proved that in case of violation of the ratio of fractions of lipids in the blood and in raising the General level of triglycerides above 2.3 mmol/l your risk of heart attack increases 4 times. The triglyceride is insoluble in water, so in the blood it circulates in a complex with proteins, forming lipoproteins (LP). Among these there are several PL fractions of very low density, low density and high density. Each of them plays a role in the body.
- High density lipoproteins are the «good» cholesterol, which rids the blood of excess cholesterol, carrying them to the liver for processing. This liberal group called anti-atherogenic. Due to the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these compounds normalize the nervous system. In norm it should not be below 1.5 mmol/L.
- Low density lipoproteins are named so, because they consist mainly of fat and not from protein, so have low density. This fraction refers to triglycerides atherogenic. With increasing their number in the blood (for example, due to errors in the diet), the cells do not have time fully to absorb them, and these compounds are deposited on the damaged vessel walls, speaking of the so-called patches. Thus, for the development of atherosclerosis is not enough only to increase the level of certainty required, and damaging blood vessels factor. The norm of this fraction should be not more than 3.3 mmol/L.
- Lipoproteins of very low density. The presence of this fraction in the blood indicates the atherosclerosis in the patient. Still not known whether this fraction is a constant component of blood or appears only in the development of the pathological process. In norm it should not be.
- Atherogenic coefficient is the ratio between «good» cholesterol and «bad». For its determination it is sufficient to know the amount of total cholesterol and HDL. Normally, this ratio should be not more than 3.5.